Posts Tagged With: Hebrew

The Hebrew word (merkabah) in the Bible can be translated as ‘chariot’ or ‘riding seat’. It does not distinguish between a vehicle that is horse drawn or a vehicle that is carried.

The Bible records that Joseph was given a chariot to travel through Egypt.300px-Lawrence_Alma-Tadema_The_Finding_of_Moses

If Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, this would mean that chariots existed in Egypt as early as the third dynasty.

In the third dynasty, only high officials like the pharaoh and his chancellor / sage / vizier were afforded a chariot to travel in.

Chariots in the 3rd dynasty were not horse drawn, they were carried by a procession of servants.

The Hebrew word (merkabah) in the Bible can be translated as ‘chariot’ or ‘riding seat’.  It does not distinguish between a vehicle that is horse drawn or a vehicle that is carried.

The enigma of chariots in the third dynasty is, therefore, easily explained.

thut3_chariotHorse drawn chariots were used for military purposes and were not introduced until the 12th dynasty.   Most of the chariots of the 12 & 13th dynasty were lost in the Red Sea at the time of the Exodus and paintings depicting horse drawn chariots in the 12th dynasty would not have survived.

It is hardly surprising then that there are no findings of horse draw chariots before the Hyksos (15th dynasty) unless, of course, one accepts that the chariot wheels found in the Red Sea by Wyatt in 1978 were from the 12th and 13th dynasty.

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What are the implications for Israel, Islam and Christianity if the mud bricks in the 12th dynasty pyramids were made by Israelites?

The Abrahamic faiths, Christianity, Judaism and Islam all have their roots in Egypt.

Abraham, Joseph and Moses are common to all these religions.

They were real people who are considered the patriarchs of the faith.

Their ancestry and what they achieved is history and it is recorded in the Bible.

In an age when atheism and evolution are fairly common, it is good to be able to give evidence that the Bible is historically accurate.

Owing to the gross inaccuracies of the traditional Egptian chronology, many historians and archaeologists have been looking for evidence of the Jews in Egypt in the wrong dynasties.  Not supprisingly, they haven’t found any.

The mud brick pyramids of the 12th dynasty have been staring us so blatently in the face, yet somehow, over the ages, the fact that the Israelites made the mudbricks that went into them has been forgotten.  Fact has become legend, and legend myth.

The loss of historical records (eg when the Alexandrian library burnt down), the white washing of history to cover up humiliating defeats, wars, natural disasters and pilfering has also contributed.  For almost 2000 years, the art of reading heiroglyphics was lost and only recently recovered when the Rosetta stone was found.

When animals become extinct, people begin to doubt they ever existed.

When people no longer believe that the Bible is true, the fact that the Jews were in Egypt and played a big role in building the pyramids also gets lost.

Now, nobody can explain how the pyramids came to be.  Some people have even suggested that they were made by aliens.

The Bible is the oldest, most reliable and ubiquitous source of historical information that we have.  If we ignore it, it is no wonder that we do not know who built the pyramids.

When we believe it to be true, archaeological evidence and historical records and geological information just seem to fall into place.

The Bible provides the only credible explanation for where we come from and how the pyramids came to be.

Isn’t God awsome and marvelous!!

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Moses was adopted by Sobekneferu and raised as her own during the reign of Amenemhet III

Growing up in Pharaoh’s Household – the first 40 yrs

The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep). Exodus 1:1-22

Netjerikhet / Djoser (the pharaoh Joseph served) allowed the Jacob and his family to live in the most fertile part of the land of Egypt where they multiplied and became numerous.Joseph (Imhotep) ensured that the Jews were able to multiply without hinderance from the Egyptians. Joseph died at the age of 110 years, 80 years after he became the vizier (second in charge) under Pharaoh. Joseph would have lived well into the 4th dynasty and advised several pharaohs.

It was not until quite some time after Joseph‘s death, that a new Pharaoh Amenemhet I came to power. Amenemhet I was concerned that the Jews were becoming too numerous. He was afraid that they would join their enemies and fight against him.

Amenemhet I (the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty) was the vizier of Mentuhotep IV (last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty). The Jews were treated well in the 11th dynasty. Amenemhet I may have even assasinated Mentuhotep IV to take power. He had a different attitude towards the Jews. He forced the Jews to make mud bricks and work the field.

Other pharaohs of the 12th dynasty continued in this vein. They needed a large slave labor force to make mud bricks for their building exploits. The 12th dynasty pyramids, unlike pyramids of earlier dynasties, were made of mud bricks and only had a limestone veneer on the outside. The seven great pyramids of the 12th dynasty were constructed over a 200 year period. Each of the Pyramids contained millions of mud bricks.

By the end of the 12th dynasty, the Jews had come to number nearly 2 million with at least 600000 men of fighting age. If the Jews just produced one mud brick per person per day 5 days per week for 200 years, that would be a lot of mudbricks!!! More than enough for the needs of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.

The 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty Amenemhet III made two pyramids and also constructed the Labyrinth (a structure containing over 1000 rooms and considered on of the wonders of the ancient world). The Labyrinth was also constructed out of mud bricks. Moses was born during the reign of Amenemhet III at a time when he was co-reigning with his father Sesostris III. It was one of these pharaohs who ordered the Egyptian midwives to kill the Hebrew babies if they were male. It was Amenemhet III‘s daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses amongst the reeds of the Nile when she was bathing. Moses was just three months old at the time and had been left there by his sister Miriam who was keeping an eye on him.Sobekneferu allowed the Hebrew slave Jochebed (who was actually Moses‘s mother), to nurse him until he was old enough and then Sobekneferu took him as her own son.Sobekneferu would have groomed Moses to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IVExodus 2:1-10

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Exodus Pharaoh – Neferhotep I

Neferhotep I was the Exodus Pharaoh

Neferhotep I was one of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to theTurin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty. There were a number of other Pharaohs in this Dynasty but they only reigned for very short periods. Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[1] (Wahneferhotep).[2] He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. Moses (at the age of 80 years) and Aaron (aged 83 years) would have contronted Neferhotep in 1446BC which is when the Exodus occurred. Neferhotep I‘s mummy has never been found because he drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites who were leaving Egypt (the Exodus). The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. Scarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sesostris II up until Neferhotep I were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahun indicating that it was Neferhotep I who was reigning when the Exodus occurred.[3] These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty. As the Exodus took place in 1446BC, the Dates of his reign are likely to be: 1457-1446BC (seeRevised Chronology) Following Neferhotep I‘s death at the time of the Exodus, the Hyksos (Amalekites) were able to invade Egypt with very little resistance.

The Thirteenth Dynasty – Egypt’s Demise

Neferhotep I

Egypt’s wealth and power reached a peak during the reigns of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III of the 12th dynasty.Sesostris III and Amenemhet III had a coregency lasting about 20 years. It was during their coregency that Moses was born to the Hebrew slave Jochebed (1526BC). Moses was born at a time when Amenemhet III was trying to kill the Hebrew babies to stop the Hebrews from outnumbering the Egyptians. Amenemhet III had no sons of his own and so he allowed his daughter Sobekneferu to adopt a little baby that she found left in basket among the bullrushes of the NileMoses was raised in Pharaoh’s household and would have become the next Pharaoh except he showed his allegiance to the Hebrews by killing an Egyptian taskmaster. Moses(Amenemhet IV) had to flee to Midian where he remained in exile for 40 years. During this time,Amenemhet III died and his daughter Sobekneferu had to assume the throne. She only reigned for 4 yrs and then she died, so ending the 12th dynasty. The 13th dynasty is tradionally thought to have begun with Sobekhetep I. It is often described as a time of chaos and disorder with a rather quick succession of pharaohs. Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was the center of government for most of the dynasty. Many of the Pharaohs were know only from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs. Little is known about the chronology of this period as there were few monuments or stellas. Neferhotep I was one of the longest ruling pharaohs of that dynasty, reigning for 11 years according to the Turin King ListNeferhotep was the pharaoh who was ruling when Moses(Amenemhet IV) returned from exile in Midian, age 80 years, in 1446BC, to team up with his brother Aaron to deliver God’s message. There are numerous inscriptions in the Aswan region mentioning Neferhotep I’s name, as well as the names of family members and officials serving under this king. It is from these inscriptions that we know the name of his wife (Senebsen) and his son Haankhef and his daughter Kemi.

Amenemhet IV (Moses) in Exile

Moses (Amenemhet IV) was in exile in Midian for the last few years of Amenemhet III‘s reign and during the reign of Sobekneferu.Exodus 2:23-25

Moses remained in exile for much of the 13th dynasty until the reign of Neferhotep I.

Flinders Petrie found a semetic workers village at Kahun which is situated close to Dashur and Hawara where many of the 12th dynasty mud brick pyramids are situated. Kahun was constructed during the time of Sesostris II to house the workers who built the pyramids at Dashur and Hawara. Scarabs found in the village indicate that it was occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. As so many tools and manuscripts were left behind, Petrie concluded that the village must have been evacuated fairly quickly.

The Hebrew slaves who lived in Kahun were given the task of making mudbricks containing straw for the Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty. The mudbricks were used to construct the cores of the 12th dynasty pyramids. There were at least seven pyramids constructed during the 12th dynasty which spanned about 200 years. The Labyrinth at Hawara, constructed under Amenemhet III, also contained millions of mudbricks. The Labyrinth contained over a thousand rooms and was considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. A large slave labour force was needed to support the building exploits of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.

The Israelites had grown to number around 2 million. Even if the Israelites only produced one mud brick per day per person, there were more than enough Hebrew slaves in Egypt to meet the building needs of the 12th dynasty pharaohs. The Egyptions were worried that the Jews may rebel and join their enemies. The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty oppressed the Hebrews, forcing them to be slaves.

When Amenemhet III was co-reigning with his father Sesostris III, he tried to have the male babies of the Hebrew slaves killed. Moses was born during this time and was found and adopted by the princess Sobekneferu. She raised him as her own which means he would have been an heir to the throne because Amenemhet III had no other male heirs and a women had never taken the throne before. It appears that Moses, as Amenemhet IV, helped Amenemhet III reign for about 9 years before having to go into exile. Sobekneferu did eventualy succeed Amenemhet III but only because Moses / Amenemhet IV had to flee to Midian after revealing his loyalty to the HebrewsMoses / Amenemhet IV was 40 years old when he fled to MidianAmenemhet IV had a coregency with Amenemhet III of 9 years according to the Turin King List but he never reigned by himself. Moses / Amenemhet IV remained in Midian for 40 years when had an encounter with God on Mt Sinai (the burning bush) and was told to return to Egypt and lead the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land of Canaan. (Exodus 3:1-22 ) He also met his wife Zipporrah in MidianZipporrahwas the daughter of the High Prist of Midian Jethro with whom Moses / Amenemhet IV stayed.

Amenemhet IV (Moses) Returns to Egypt

After Moses (Amenemhet IV) had been in Midian for 40 years, the LORD (Yehovah) appeared to Moses on Mt Sinai. Moses was told to go back to Egypt and tell the new Pharaoh to let the Israelites go.Exodus 3:1-22

The Israelites had been in Egypt 430 years. It was time for them to return to Canaan and take possession of it. Yehovah had promised to give Canaan to the Israelites after they had served as slaves in a foreign land for 400 years (4 generations).Genesis 15:12-16 Acts 7:6

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had forgotten what Joseph (Imhotep) had done for Egypt. The Jews, who had come to number around 2 million posed a threat to the Egyptians and so the 12th dynasty pharaohs oppressed the Jews and forced them to make mudbricks and work the fields. The 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobekneferu; the princess that found Moses and raised him as her own.

The 13th dynasty pharaohs did not undertake massive construction projects like their 12th dynasty predecessors but they continued to oppress the IsraelitesYehovah saw their suffering and remembered his promise to AbrahamExodus 6:1-12

Yehovah appeared to Aaron (the brother of Moses) and sent him to fetch Moses and be his spokesman. Moses returned to Egypt and appeared before the Elders of Israel. He told them what Godhad said and Moses (Amenemhet IV) performed the signs that were given to him. The Israelites believed and accepted Moses and Aaron as their leader and spokesman.Exodus 4:18-31

The Exodus of the Jews

Moses and Aaron went before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and presented the message that God had given them. Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I).Exodus 7:7 The Pharaoh’s heart was hard and so God had to inflict 10 plagues upon Egypt before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) would finally agree to let the Israelites go.

Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and perform Miraculous Signs and delivered God’s Message : “Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me“.Exodus 7:1-13 Ten Plagues were inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh Neferhotep I would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go: Blood – Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs – Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats – Exodus 8:15-19 Flies – Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock – Exodus 9:1-7 Boils – Exodus 9:8-12 Hail – Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts – Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness – Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt’s Firtsborn –Exodus 11:1-10 Amazingly, none of these plagues affected the Israelites who were living in the country. The last plague in which all of Egypt’s firstborn died is commemorated by the Jews today: The Passover. Exodus 12:1-30

The loss of Egypt’s first born (Including Neferhotep I‘s son Haankhef) was the ‘final straw’. After this Pharaoh Neferhotep I summoned Moses and Aaron and told the the Israelites to GO (and take their flocks and herds). The Egyptians even gave the Israelites considerable amounts of gold and sliver and clothes. Exodus 12:31-50

The Israelites assembled at Succoth. That night, the Israelites set off, taking with them unleavened bread as well as their flocks and herds and the gold and silver that the Egyptians had given them. Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age. Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years.Exodus 12:40

Flinders Petrie found evidence to suggest that the town of Kahun was suddenly vacated. He also found the scarabs of various pharaohs including those of Sesostris II (the earliest) and Neferhotep I (the latest). The the most recent (latest) scarabs would indicate which pharaoh was ruling when the town was vacated, particularly if the pharaoh had been ruling for a while. The most recent scarabs found at Kahun were those of NeferhotepNeferhotep also has the necessary credentials to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus in that he was reigning at the right time, his body (mummy) was never found and he had a son but his son did not succeed him. Neferehotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV who would not have normally been next in line to the throne but for the fact that Neferhotep’s firstborn son Haankhef was killed in the last of the ten plagues that befell Egypt.

The Red Sea Crossing

The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory.Exodus 13:17-22 Moses took Joseph‘s (Imhotep‘s) bones with him.Exodus 13:19 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day.Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert.Exodus 13:20 Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changed his mind and pursued the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt’s chariots.Exodus 14:1-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow.Exodus 14:21-31 The mummy of Neferhotep has never been found.

The 14th Dynasty – Egypt Crippled

The Hyksos Invasion – The 15th Dynasty – The Second Intermediate Period

Egypts New Kingdom – The 18th Dynasty

Biblical References

Exodus 1:1-22 The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep)

Exodus 2:1-10 Moses birth and adoption by pharaoh’s daughter

Exodus 2:11-25 Moses (Amenemhet IV) has to flee to Midian

Exodus 2:23-25 The Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) dies while Moses is in exile

Exodus 3:1-22 Moses and the Burning Bush

Exodus 4:1-17 Signs for Moses

Exodus 4:18-31 Moses (Amenemhet IV) returns to Egypt

Exodus 5:1-23 Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) but he does not obey

Exodus 6:1-12 God remembers his Promise to Abraham

Exodus 6:13-30 Genealogy of Moses

Exodus 7:6 Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I)

Exodus 7:1-13 Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) to perform Miraculous Signs and deliver God’s Message : “Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me

Ten Plagues inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go:

Blood – Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs – Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats – Exodus 8:15-19 Flies – Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock – Exodus 9:1-7 Boils – Exodus 9:8-12 Hail – Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts –Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness – Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt’s Firtsborn – Exodus 11:1-10

Exodus 12:1-30 The Passover

Exodus 12:31-50 The Exodus

Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites took unleavened bread and large droves of livestock with them. The Egyptians also gave them considerable amounts of silver and gold and clothings.

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites assembled at Succoth

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age

Exodus 12:40 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years

Exodus 13:17-22 The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory

Exodus 13:19 Moses took Joseph’s (Imhotep’s) bones with him

Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day

Exodus 13:20 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert

Exodus 14:1-31 Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changes his mind and pursues the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt’s chariots

Exodus 14:21-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow

Exodus 15:22-27 After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites bypassed Marah where the waters were bitter and camped at Elim where there were 12 springs and 70 palms

Links

[The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut]

[The Pharaoh of the Exodus]

[Searching for Moses David Down]

[Neferhotep]

[The Exodus ]

[Pyramids of Ancient Egypt Answers in Genesis David Down]

[The Mysterious Hyksos Answers in Genesis John Ashton & David Down]

[The Pharaoh of the Exodus]

[Q&A Creation Ken Ham]

[Egyptian history and the Biblical record. ? A perfect match. Daniel Anderson]

[Scarab of Neferhotep I]

Evidence for the Israelites (JEWS) in Ancient Egypt

[Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep]

[The True Mt Sinai]

Moses and Amenemhet IV

References

  1.  Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, 231
  2.  Ken Ham Q&A Creation Ken Ham
  3.  The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut
Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Red sea, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The History of Egypt synchonises well with that of Israel as recorded in the Bible.

Amenemhet IV – Amenemhat IV – Maakherure – Moses

The ?adopted son of Amenemhet III, (the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty).  He co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years over Upper and Lower Egypt, Elephantine and Lower Nubia and then suddenly disappeared.  His ancestry is not recorded in Egyptian records.  (Many believe him to be the Moses of the Bible who was born {1526BC}, raised by a princess in Pharaoh’s household, went into exile in Midian at the age of 40yrs {1486BC} and then returned to Egypt at the end of the 13th dynasty at the age of 80yrs to confront Neferhotep {1446BC} and lead the Israelites out of Egypt but died at the age of 120yrs before the Israelites entered the ‘Promised Land’ (Canaan) {1406BC}.)  Sobekneferu, the daughter of Amenemhet III may have been the Princess that found him in a basket in the Nile and, being childless, raised him as her own. Amenemhet III had no sons to inherit the throne so when he died Sobekneferu, in the absence of Amenemhet IV, became the next Pharaoh.  When she died, after reigning only 4 years, the 12th dynasty ended and Egypt was destabilized and eventually over run by the Hyksos {1444BC} bringing an end to the 13th dynasty. The revised dates of his reign: 1495-1486BC (approximately).

Amenemhet IV

 

Sphinx made of gneiss, which has Amenemhet IV inscribed on the side. The face was reworked during Roman times leaving its features uncertain.

Amenemhet IV was a pharaoh of Egypt who served as a junior co-regent under Amenemhet III during the Twelfth Dynasty. According to the Turin Canon papyrus, the full term of his reign is said to have been just over 9 years.[1] His ancestry to his precedessor is enigmatic, and there are no records of Amenemhet III having any sons. Furthermore, he mysteriously disappeared before the death of Amenemhet III, resulting in Sobekneferu (one of Amenemhet III’s daughters) ascending to the throne and becoming Egypt’s first female ruler.[2]

Biblical synchrony

Main Article: Evidence for the Israelites (JEWS) in Ancient Egypt

Main Article: Moses and Amenemhet IV

Some believe that Amenemhet IV should be identified as the Moses of the Biblical Exodus.[3]

Moses was born to a Hebrew slave Jochebed during the first six years of the reign of Amenemhet III when Amenemhet III was co-reigning with his father Sesostris IIIAmenemhet III (or mayby his father Sesostris III) ordered the Egyptian midwives to kill the male babies of the Hebrew slaves when they were born.  The midwives resisted doing this.  Moses was hidden by his sister Miriam amongst the reeds of the Nile in a basket only to be found by the pharaoh’s daughter Sobekneferu.  She being childless, adopted him and raised him in her own household, no doubt training him to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV.

Sobekneferu is often listed as Amenemhet IVs sister and also his wife, but it seems to have been she who found Moses in the Nile River. It is known that she had no children, which may explain why Amenemhet III was willing to accept him as heir to the throne. But when Moses came of age and identified himself with the people of Israel, he was forced to flee from Egypt, leaving way for Sobekneferu to take the throne. When Sobekneferu died the 12th dynasty ended and was succeeded by the 13th dynasty.

The pharaohs of the 13th dynasty had very short reigns.  The 13th dynasty ended with the invasion of the Hyksos not long after the Exodus of Israel.

Egypt’s wealth and power reached it’s peak in the 12th dynasty under Sesostris III and his son Amenemhet III.  By the end of the 12th dynasty, the Jews had come to number about 2 million.  They had been in Egypt for 400 years and they had served as slaves for about half of this time.  The 12th dynasty pharaohs had long forgoten Joseph / Imhotep of the 3rd dynasty and were becoming fearful of the Jews because they were so numerous.  The 12th dynasty pharaohs decided to oppress the Jews and made them in to slaves.  They were forced to work the fields and make mudbricks for the inner core of the 12th dynasty pyramids.

As Amenemhet III was left with no male successor, the Middle Kingdom started to fall apart when he died. Amenemhet III hoped that Moses, an Israelite baby, adopted by the Princess Sobekneferu and groomed to be the next Pharaoh (Amenemhet IV) would be able to continue the 12th dynasty. Amenemhet IV did in fact co-reign with Amenemhet III for a period of 9 yrs, but when he revealed his affections towards his biological kindred (the Hebrew slaves), he had to flee to Midian (when 40 years of age).  Suddenly, there was no male successor for Amenemhet III. Sobekneferu, the princess that found Moses amongst the reeds of the Nile and raised him as her own, had to take over the reigns herself when Amenemhet III died. She only lived for another 4 yrs (maybe 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.   Egypt fell into turmoil and became politically unstable. There was a quick succession of Pharaohs in the 13th dynasty until Neferhotep who was the Pharaoh who was ruling when Moses (Amenemhet IV) returned from his exile in Midian.

Moses (Amenemhet IV) brought God’s message to the Pharaoh (Neferhotep); namely, “Let My People (The Israelites) Go“.  Supported by his biological brother Aaron and his biological sister Miriam who were Hebrew slaves, Moses alias Amenemhet IV became the God ordained leader and spokesman of the Israelites who had grown in number to 2 million and had been serving the 12th dynasty pharaohs as slaves for around 200 yrs; making mubricks for the inner core of the 12th dynasty pyramids and working the fields.  The pharaoh of the time, Neferhotep would not listen to Moses and is brother Aaron.  After a series of ten plagues that were inflicted on Egypt, Neferhotep let Moses (Amenemhet IV) take the Israelities into the desert. When they did not return, he pursued them with his army. The Israelites were able to cross the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aqaba but Neferhotep and his army drowned when they tried to follow.

Not only did Egypt lose its slave labour force, it lost it’s monarch, it’s firstborn, it’s entire army and it’s transportation system. It was a massive defeat and not something that Egyptian historians would want to memorialize. In fact, much has been don’t to white wash this defeat from their records.

When the Israelites left Egypt (the Exodus), the Pharaoh Neferhotep and his son died and all the Egyptian army drowned in the Red Sea taking all of Egypt’s chariots with them.  Egypt’s first born were dead.  Their slave labour force had gone. Egypt was then thrown into turmoil.  Egypt was no longer able to undertake major constructions and so no more pyramids were built.  The Egyptians were not able to defend themselves.  They became vulnerable to invasion and they were easy pickings for any of their neibours.

Not long after the Exodus, the Amalekites / Hyksos were able invade Egypt and take contol of Lower Egypt.  This was the beginning of  Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period / the 15th dynasty.  Just as if by chance, as Israel was leaving Egypt (lead by Amenemhet IV / Moses), the Hyksos were on there way in.  In fact, the Hyksos / Amalekites had a brief battle with the Israelites at Rephadim in which the Israelites prevailed and sent the Hyksos / Amalekites packing.  The Hyksos / Amalekites eventually went to Egypt where they constucted a fort on Egypt’s boundary at Avaris.  From there, they mounted a campain to take over the rest of the country.  They controlled Lower Egypt for the next 400 years (corresponding to the Israelite’s 40 years in the Wilderness and the  period when the Judges ruled in Israel).  They were eventually defeated in a rebellion starting in Upper Egypt lead by Kahmose of Thebes with the assistance of King Saul of Israel, ushering in the 18th dynasty Ahmose I).

The Israelites, therefore, had a profound influence on Egypt.  Joseph (Imhotep) saved Egypt from a seven year famine and acquired all the land of Egypt, making the pharaohs wealthy and powerful.  He designed the first pyramid (in the third dynasty) and was the first to build with columns and write on papyrus.  Later in Israel’s sojourn, the Israelites provided slave labour for various public works which included making mudbricks for the construction of the last of the great pyramids (those of the 12th dynasty). Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later as a result of the Exodus at the end of the 13th dynasty (1446BC) and as a result became vulnerable to invasion. The Hyksos took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period). [F] .[4]

There is now quite a lot of evidence to suggest that the Hyksos of Egypt were the Amalekites. The Amalekites captured Egypt without a fight and became its aristocracy, until Ahmose I would capture their capital city of Avaris[5] and throw them out with the help of King Saul of Israel.

If it is true that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, then the first pyramid (the Step Pyramid in Saqqara) was designed by an Israelite at the begining of Israel’s Sojourn in Egypt and if the last of the great pyramids (those of the 12th dynasty) were constructed with a core made from mudbricks which were made by Israelite slave labour, then the Israelites were in Egypt while all of the great pyramids were being constructed. After the Israelites departed from Egypt in the 13th dynasty, lead by Moses (Amenemhet IV), there were not enough slaves left in Egypt to construct pyramids any more. The Pyramid Age, therefore, coincides with Israel’s sojourn in Egypt. The Pyramids were thus constructed over a period of around 400 years and no more large pyramids were built after Moses (Amenemhet IV) lead the Israelites out of Egypt in 1446BC.

Amenemhet IV, if he was the Moses of the Bible, would have continued to lead the Israelites for another 40 years in the Wilderness.  He would have received the Law on Mt Sinai in Arabia (Jabel el Lawz) not long after the Exodus of Israel through the Red Sea (1446BC) at the age of 80 years.

If Amenemhet IV was Moses, he would have spent the first 40 years of his life growing up in Pharaoh’s household being groomed to be the next pharaoh by Sobekneferu.  This would include 9 years co-reigning with his adoptive father Amenemhet III.  He would have spent the next 40 years of his life in exile in Midian.  The final 40 years of his life would have been spent in the wilderness leading the Israelites and preparing them to enter the Promised Land.  If Amenemhet IV was Moses, he would have died at the age of 120 years and never got to enter the ‘Promised Land’ (Canaan).

Thus, the History of Egypt synchonises well with that of Israel as recorded in the Bible.

References

  1. Amenemhat IV
  2. Searching for Moses by David Down. Journal of Creation 15(1):53–57. April 2001
  3. Ashton, John F., and Down, David. Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms the Biblical Timeline p.92, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2006.
  4. Who were the Hyksos? Save-Soderbergh, t. (1951) The Hyksos rule in Egypt, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society.
  5. the Hyksos identified  Terry Hurlbut http://www.examiner.com/article/the-hyksos-identified

 

Links

A   [The Pharaohs of the oppression]

B   [The Exodus and the Red Sea Crossing]

C   [The Israelites had a profound influence on Egyptian History]

D   [How long did the Israelites sojourn in Egypt?]

E   [The true mount Sinai]

F   [[http://www.bukisa.com/articles/210623_who-were-the-hyksos Save-Soderbergh, t. (1951) The Hyksos rule in Egypt, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society. Follow us: @bukisa on Twitter  bukisa on Facebook ]]

G   [The Hyksos Identified]

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Sobeknefru was the Princess that found Moses floating in a basket on among the reeds of the Nile.

The Princess who found baby Moses in a basket amongst the reids of the Nile.  Her father Amenemhet III had directed the Egyptian midwives to kill all Hebrew children, She adopted Moses and raised him as an Egyptian.

The Princess who found baby Moses in a basket amongst the reeds of the Nile. Her father Amenemhet III had directed the Egyptian midwives to kill all Hebrew children, She adopted Moses and raised him as an Egyptian.

 

Sobeknefru reigned over Egypt for 4 years at the end of the 12th dynasty (End of the Middle Kingdom). When she died, the 12th dynasty ended as she had no heirs to take over the throne. She is thought to have been the Princess that found Moses floating in a basket among the reeds of the Nile at a time when her father / grandfather Amenemhet III / Sesostris III was ordering that the babies of the Hebrew slaves be killed by drowning them in the Nile. Sobeknefru adopted Moses and brought him up as her own son. She groomed Moses to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV. Moses may have even co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV. Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared before the death of Amenemhet III leaving no male heirs to take over the throne when he died. Consequently, Sobekneferu became the first Queen of Egypt. She only reigned for 4 years (possibly 8 years). Her Kingdom included Upper and Lower Egypt, Elephantine and Lower Nubia. Revised dates of her reign: 1483-1479 BC (approximately)

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The Last of the Great Pyramids. Like other 12th dynasty pyramids, the mud bricks in it’s core were probably made by Hebrew slaves.

Amenemhet III was the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty of Egypt. He built 2 pyramids; the Black Pyramid at Dashur and this one at Hawara.
While the pyramids of the Old Kingdom were made of solid limestone blocks, the 12th dynasty (Middle Kingdom) pyramids had a core that was made of bricks (containing mud and straw) and an outer veneer of limestone.
Over the centuries, the outer veneer has fallen down as a result of erosion and earth quakes or stolen by people to be used elsewhere. What remains is the mud brick core which has been eroded further by the weather.
If you look carefully, the straw within the mud bricks is still quite easy to see.
It would have taken an enormous number of slaves to make this number of mud bricks, let a lone assemble them.
It is likely that the mud bricks in these 12th dynasty pyramids were made by Hebrew slaves prior to the Exodus.

Amenemhet III would have been the Pharaoh that Moses fled from.

When the Exodus took place in 1445 BC, there were not enough slaves left in Egypt to make mud bricks  and so no more pyramids were built.
The dates do not match with the traditional dates calculated from Manetho because many dynasties and regencies ran in parallel and some dynasties have been counted twice. The Egyptian Chronology needs to be revised and then it will match the Biblical Chronology.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

The Israelites were fruitful and multiplied while Joseph (?Imhotep) lived. After Joseph had died, a new king came to power in Egypt who did not know Joseph or his connection with the Israelites. He felt threatened and started to oppress the Israelites.

<< Exodus 1 >>

New International Version 1984


The Israelites Oppressed

1These are the names of the sons of Israel who went to Egypt with Jacob, each with his family: 2Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; 3Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; 4Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher. 5The descendants of Jacob numbered seventya in all; Joseph was already in Egypt.

6Now Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation died, 7but the Israelites were fruitful and multiplied greatly and became exceedingly numerous, so that the land was filled with them.

8Then a new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt. 9“Look,” he said to his people, “the Israelites have become much too numerous for us. 10Come, we must deal shrewdly with them or they will become even more numerous and, if war breaks out, will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the country.”

11So they put slave masters over them to oppress them with forced labor, and they built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh. 12But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread; so the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites 13and worked them ruthlessly.14They made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their hard labor the Egyptians used them ruthlessly.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The last of the Great Pyramids. The Amenmehat III pyramid at Hawara. The 12th dynasty pyramids had a core of mudbricks and a limestone veneer. The limestone veneer has fallen away / been removed over the centuries exposing the core which is composed of millions of mudbricks.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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