Posts Tagged With: Kahun

Moses was born during the co-regency of Senusret III and Amenemhet III in the 12th dynasty during the Israelite Oppression. The 12th dynasty was doomed when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile and it was crippled by the Exodus of the Israelites 40 years later.

Moses was an Israelite who was adopted by the Pharaoh’s daughter and raised as her own. Moses spend the first 40 years of his life growing up in Pharaoh’s household. There was no change of pharaoh during this time. As the princess did not have any other children, Moses would have become the next pharaoh if he did not have to flee to Midian after showing his loyalty to the Israelites.

Moses was born 80 years before the Exodus and fled to Midian 40 years before the Exodus.

Moses was born during the Israelite Oppression at a time when the Pharaoh was trying to kill all the Hebrew baby boys.

The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430-80=350 years and had been forced into slavery for about 150 years since the start of the 12th dynasty.

Sesostris III - (The father of Amenemhet III)

Senusret III (Sesostris III) – (The father of Amenemhet III)

Amenemhet III, the 6th pharaoh of the 12 dynasty, the last pharaoh to build a great pyramid, had an ambitious building program. His first pyramid at Dashur had flawed foundations and so he built a second pyramid at Hawara. He also build the Labyrinth; considered, in it’s day, to be one of the great wonders of the world by Heroditis. Both of his pyramids were constructed with a core that contained millions upon millions of mud bricks (as was the case for all the pyramids of the 12th dynasty). The labyrinth was a mortuary building that had over one thousand rooms. It was also built from mud bricks and was equal in grandeur to the pyramids themselves.

The Israelites now numbered around 2 million and the Bible says that their chief occupation was making mud bricks for the Pharaoh.

Petrie found a workers village at Kahun, not far from Hawara, where the 12th dynasty pyramids were centered. From his detailed collection of scarabs found in the village, he was able to determine that the village had been occupied from the time of Sesostris II (Senusret II) up until the time of Neferhotep I. The village appeared to have been evacuated fairly suddenly. Petrie also found numerous boxes containing the skeletons of one, two or three babies at a time. The boxes were found under the floors of the houses in the village and were left almost to commemorate the deaths hundreds of babies in the town.

The thirteenth dynasty was only a short dynasty but there was a quick succession of Pharaohs. Neferhotep I was the longest ruling pharaoh of that dynasty, ruling 11 yrs. His body was never found. As the slave village at Kahun was occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I and Neferhotep I ruled 20 to 30 years after the end of the 12th dynasty, it is likely that Neferhotep I was the Exodus Pharaoh whom Moses confronted when he returned from Exile.

There was a large Exodus of slaves during the reign of Neferhotep I according to Petrie. These slaves lived in Kahun which was a workers village for the builders of the 12th dynasty pyramids.

It is quite likely that these slaves were the Israelite slaves who were lead out of Egypt by Moses when he was 80yrs old, 30 years after the 12th dynasty ended.

The 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty Amenemhet III, the last pharaoh to construct any pyramids, constructed 2 mud brick pyramids and the labyrinth. He reigned for 46 yrs and so he was reigning long enough to have seen Moses adopted by his daughter (Sobeknefru) and reach 40 years of age.

Amenemhet III did have a 9 year co-regency with a figure called Amenemhet IV whose ancestry is not recorded in Egyptian records. Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared and never got to reign over Egypt by himself.

When Moses-Amenemhet IV fled to Midian, the 12th dynasty continued for another 10 years. When Amenemhet III died 2 yrs after Moses fled to Midian, Sobeknefru had to assume the throne as there were no other heirs. She only lived for another 8 yrs and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended. Egypt became unstable and there was a rapid succession of pharaohs in the 13th dynasty until Neferhotep I.

The loss of Moses-Amenemhet IV in itself was a big blow to Amenemhet III as it meant that he had no male successor to the throne. His daughter Sobeknefru had to take over when he died. She did not build a pyramid and there are very few monuments commemorating her. Amenemhet IV’s tomb and mummy have never been found. This is likely to be because Amenemhet IV was Moses who fled to Midian and then returned 40 years later to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep I), and lead the Israelites out of Egypt.

The Exodus of the Israelites was an even bigger blow to Egypt because Egypt lost not only it’s slave labor force, it lost it’s army, it’s pharaoh, it’s transportation system, it’s firstborn children and much of it’s crops and animals. It is little wonder that Egypt was not able to undertake massive projects like the construction of pyramids after the Exodus had taken place. What’s more, Egypt had lost all of it’s defenses and was recovering from the plagues that had besmitten it. Consequently, Egypt was vulnerable to invasion and this is just what happened. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos (also known as the Amu or the Amalekites) shortly after the Exodus. The Hyksos set up a fort at Avaris where they occupied and controlled Lower Egypt for the next 400 years. During this time, the Israelites were in the wilderness for 40 years and then in the Promised Land where they were ruled by a series of Judges.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Pharaoh when Moses was Born (Amenemhet III)

The Pharaoh when Moses was Born

Moses/Amenemhet IV was 80 years old when he lead the Israelites out of Egypt in 1446BC.   The Israelites were in Egypt for 430 years. Moses was born 80 years before the Exodus in 1526BC.  The Israelites, therefore, had been in Egypt for 350 years when Moses was born.  Joseph/Imhotep was long since dead and by the time of the Exodus the Israelites numbered around 2 million as there were over 600,000 men of fighting age.

The Israelites flourished and multiplied quickly when they first came to Egypt in the 3rd dynasty when Djoser (Netjerikhet) was pharaoh.   They had the blessing of the Pharaoh and they enjoyed the protection of the vizier Joseph/Imhotep while he was alive.  They lived in Goshen, the most fertile part of Egypt.

At the end of the 6th and 11th dynasty (which ran contemporaneously in different parts of the country), there was an uprising by Amenemhet I who was the vizier for Mentuhotep IV of the 11th dynasty.   He assassinated Mentuhotep IV and became the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty, eventually taking over all of upper and lower Egypt.    Amenemhet I did not care or remember that the Israelites were related to  Joseph/Imhotep  who had saved Egypt from a seven year famine and made the pharaohs rich.  This pharaoh (Amenemhet I) ruthlessly forced the Israelites to work the fields and make mud bricks for his public works.  The 12th dynasty pyramids were composed largely of mud bricks which were then covered or faced with a limestone veneer. (Some of the inner rooms and passage ways were also made of limestone.)

The 12th dynasty spanned almost 200 years.   Amenemhet III was the sixth pharaoh of this dynasty and he built two pyramids.  He reigned for 46 years.  He co-reigned with his father Sesostris III for as long as 20 years at the beginning of his reign.  At the end of his reign, he co-reigned with his intended successor Amenemhet IV for 9 years but was succeeded by his daughter Sobeknefru because Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared.  Sobeknefru only lived for another 4-8 years and then the 12th dynasty ended and Egypt was thrown into turmoil.  There was a rapid succession of pharaoh’s in the next dynasty and no pyramids were constructed during this time.  Towards the end of the 13th dynasty, which lasted less than 40 years, there was a sudden exodus of slaves from Egypt.  This occurred during the reign of NeferhotepKahun, for example, was a slave village that was occupied from the time of Sesostris II up until the time of Neferhotep, as evidenced by the scarabs that Flinders Petrie found in the town.  Petrie also found evidence that the town was suddenly vacated.

Moses spent the first 40 years of his life growing up in Pharaoh’s household.  The pharaoh’s daughter, being childless, adopted Moses (a Hebrew baby who she found hidden amongst the reeds of the Nile) and raised him as her own.  She would have groomed Moses to be the next heir to the throne.

There was no change of pharaohs during Moses’s first 40 years.  The pharaoh of the time would have reigned at least 40 years.

Moses lead the Israelites out of Egypt at the age of 80 years, 40 years after Moses went into Exile.

Egypt was devastated by the Exodus.  With the loss of it’s slaves, Egypt was no longer able to construct pyramids.  With the loss of it’s army, Egypt was no longer able to defend itself. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos not long after the Exodus.

It is highly likely that  Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh that was reigning when Moses was born.  He reigned for 46 yrs and would have seen Moses reach the age of 40 years.   Amenemhet III had a daughter (Sobeknefru) who was childless.  Amenemhet III was the last of a long line of pharaohs in the 12th dynasty who needed a large slave labour force to construct the massive pyramids of the 12th dynasty that were composed chiefly of mud bricks reinforced with straw.

The Hebrews were numerous enough and living in Egypt long enough to have made the mud bricks for all of the 12th dynasty pyramids as well as the Labyrinth which was constructed out of mud bricks too.

The ancestry of Amenemhet IV is unknown.  Amenemhet IV may well have been the child of a Hebrew slave.  Sobeknefru may well have been the princess who found him and adopted him and raised him as her own to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV after her father  Amenemhet III.

Amenemhet IV‘s tomb has never been found. If Amenemhet IV was Moses, Amenemhet IV would not have died in Egypt.

Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared after co-reigning with  Amenemhet III for 9 years.  Amenemhet IV never got to reign alone.

The interval between the end of the reign of  Amenemhet III and the end of the reign of the Exodus Pharaoh (Neferhotep) was about 40 years.

The pyramids of  Amenemhet III were the last great pyramids to be built.  The early pyramids of the 3rd to the 6th dynasty were build out of solid limestone but the later pyramids of the 12th dynasty were built out of mud bricks as there was not enough limestone.  No major pyramids were built after the 12th dynasty because Egypt’s slaves had escaped!

Mudbricks in the 12th dynasty Amenermhet III pyramid at Hawara.

Mudbricks in the 12th dynasty Amenermhet III pyramid at Hawara.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Exodus Pharaoh – Neferhotep I

Neferhotep I was the Exodus Pharaoh

Neferhotep I was one of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to theTurin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty. There were a number of other Pharaohs in this Dynasty but they only reigned for very short periods. Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[1] (Wahneferhotep).[2] He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. Moses (at the age of 80 years) and Aaron (aged 83 years) would have contronted Neferhotep in 1446BC which is when the Exodus occurred. Neferhotep I‘s mummy has never been found because he drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites who were leaving Egypt (the Exodus). The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. Scarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sesostris II up until Neferhotep I were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahun indicating that it was Neferhotep I who was reigning when the Exodus occurred.[3] These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty. As the Exodus took place in 1446BC, the Dates of his reign are likely to be: 1457-1446BC (seeRevised Chronology) Following Neferhotep I‘s death at the time of the Exodus, the Hyksos (Amalekites) were able to invade Egypt with very little resistance.

The Thirteenth Dynasty – Egypt’s Demise

Neferhotep I

Egypt’s wealth and power reached a peak during the reigns of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III of the 12th dynasty.Sesostris III and Amenemhet III had a coregency lasting about 20 years. It was during their coregency that Moses was born to the Hebrew slave Jochebed (1526BC). Moses was born at a time when Amenemhet III was trying to kill the Hebrew babies to stop the Hebrews from outnumbering the Egyptians. Amenemhet III had no sons of his own and so he allowed his daughter Sobekneferu to adopt a little baby that she found left in basket among the bullrushes of the NileMoses was raised in Pharaoh’s household and would have become the next Pharaoh except he showed his allegiance to the Hebrews by killing an Egyptian taskmaster. Moses(Amenemhet IV) had to flee to Midian where he remained in exile for 40 years. During this time,Amenemhet III died and his daughter Sobekneferu had to assume the throne. She only reigned for 4 yrs and then she died, so ending the 12th dynasty. The 13th dynasty is tradionally thought to have begun with Sobekhetep I. It is often described as a time of chaos and disorder with a rather quick succession of pharaohs. Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was the center of government for most of the dynasty. Many of the Pharaohs were know only from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs. Little is known about the chronology of this period as there were few monuments or stellas. Neferhotep I was one of the longest ruling pharaohs of that dynasty, reigning for 11 years according to the Turin King ListNeferhotep was the pharaoh who was ruling when Moses(Amenemhet IV) returned from exile in Midian, age 80 years, in 1446BC, to team up with his brother Aaron to deliver God’s message. There are numerous inscriptions in the Aswan region mentioning Neferhotep I’s name, as well as the names of family members and officials serving under this king. It is from these inscriptions that we know the name of his wife (Senebsen) and his son Haankhef and his daughter Kemi.

Amenemhet IV (Moses) in Exile

Moses (Amenemhet IV) was in exile in Midian for the last few years of Amenemhet III‘s reign and during the reign of Sobekneferu.Exodus 2:23-25

Moses remained in exile for much of the 13th dynasty until the reign of Neferhotep I.

Flinders Petrie found a semetic workers village at Kahun which is situated close to Dashur and Hawara where many of the 12th dynasty mud brick pyramids are situated. Kahun was constructed during the time of Sesostris II to house the workers who built the pyramids at Dashur and Hawara. Scarabs found in the village indicate that it was occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. As so many tools and manuscripts were left behind, Petrie concluded that the village must have been evacuated fairly quickly.

The Hebrew slaves who lived in Kahun were given the task of making mudbricks containing straw for the Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty. The mudbricks were used to construct the cores of the 12th dynasty pyramids. There were at least seven pyramids constructed during the 12th dynasty which spanned about 200 years. The Labyrinth at Hawara, constructed under Amenemhet III, also contained millions of mudbricks. The Labyrinth contained over a thousand rooms and was considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. A large slave labour force was needed to support the building exploits of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.

The Israelites had grown to number around 2 million. Even if the Israelites only produced one mud brick per day per person, there were more than enough Hebrew slaves in Egypt to meet the building needs of the 12th dynasty pharaohs. The Egyptions were worried that the Jews may rebel and join their enemies. The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty oppressed the Hebrews, forcing them to be slaves.

When Amenemhet III was co-reigning with his father Sesostris III, he tried to have the male babies of the Hebrew slaves killed. Moses was born during this time and was found and adopted by the princess Sobekneferu. She raised him as her own which means he would have been an heir to the throne because Amenemhet III had no other male heirs and a women had never taken the throne before. It appears that Moses, as Amenemhet IV, helped Amenemhet III reign for about 9 years before having to go into exile. Sobekneferu did eventualy succeed Amenemhet III but only because Moses / Amenemhet IV had to flee to Midian after revealing his loyalty to the HebrewsMoses / Amenemhet IV was 40 years old when he fled to MidianAmenemhet IV had a coregency with Amenemhet III of 9 years according to the Turin King List but he never reigned by himself. Moses / Amenemhet IV remained in Midian for 40 years when had an encounter with God on Mt Sinai (the burning bush) and was told to return to Egypt and lead the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land of Canaan. (Exodus 3:1-22 ) He also met his wife Zipporrah in MidianZipporrahwas the daughter of the High Prist of Midian Jethro with whom Moses / Amenemhet IV stayed.

Amenemhet IV (Moses) Returns to Egypt

After Moses (Amenemhet IV) had been in Midian for 40 years, the LORD (Yehovah) appeared to Moses on Mt Sinai. Moses was told to go back to Egypt and tell the new Pharaoh to let the Israelites go.Exodus 3:1-22

The Israelites had been in Egypt 430 years. It was time for them to return to Canaan and take possession of it. Yehovah had promised to give Canaan to the Israelites after they had served as slaves in a foreign land for 400 years (4 generations).Genesis 15:12-16 Acts 7:6

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had forgotten what Joseph (Imhotep) had done for Egypt. The Jews, who had come to number around 2 million posed a threat to the Egyptians and so the 12th dynasty pharaohs oppressed the Jews and forced them to make mudbricks and work the fields. The 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobekneferu; the princess that found Moses and raised him as her own.

The 13th dynasty pharaohs did not undertake massive construction projects like their 12th dynasty predecessors but they continued to oppress the IsraelitesYehovah saw their suffering and remembered his promise to AbrahamExodus 6:1-12

Yehovah appeared to Aaron (the brother of Moses) and sent him to fetch Moses and be his spokesman. Moses returned to Egypt and appeared before the Elders of Israel. He told them what Godhad said and Moses (Amenemhet IV) performed the signs that were given to him. The Israelites believed and accepted Moses and Aaron as their leader and spokesman.Exodus 4:18-31

The Exodus of the Jews

Moses and Aaron went before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and presented the message that God had given them. Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I).Exodus 7:7 The Pharaoh’s heart was hard and so God had to inflict 10 plagues upon Egypt before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) would finally agree to let the Israelites go.

Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and perform Miraculous Signs and delivered God’s Message : “Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me“.Exodus 7:1-13 Ten Plagues were inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh Neferhotep I would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go: Blood – Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs – Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats – Exodus 8:15-19 Flies – Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock – Exodus 9:1-7 Boils – Exodus 9:8-12 Hail – Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts – Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness – Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt’s Firtsborn –Exodus 11:1-10 Amazingly, none of these plagues affected the Israelites who were living in the country. The last plague in which all of Egypt’s firstborn died is commemorated by the Jews today: The Passover. Exodus 12:1-30

The loss of Egypt’s first born (Including Neferhotep I‘s son Haankhef) was the ‘final straw’. After this Pharaoh Neferhotep I summoned Moses and Aaron and told the the Israelites to GO (and take their flocks and herds). The Egyptians even gave the Israelites considerable amounts of gold and sliver and clothes. Exodus 12:31-50

The Israelites assembled at Succoth. That night, the Israelites set off, taking with them unleavened bread as well as their flocks and herds and the gold and silver that the Egyptians had given them. Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age. Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years.Exodus 12:40

Flinders Petrie found evidence to suggest that the town of Kahun was suddenly vacated. He also found the scarabs of various pharaohs including those of Sesostris II (the earliest) and Neferhotep I (the latest). The the most recent (latest) scarabs would indicate which pharaoh was ruling when the town was vacated, particularly if the pharaoh had been ruling for a while. The most recent scarabs found at Kahun were those of NeferhotepNeferhotep also has the necessary credentials to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus in that he was reigning at the right time, his body (mummy) was never found and he had a son but his son did not succeed him. Neferehotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV who would not have normally been next in line to the throne but for the fact that Neferhotep’s firstborn son Haankhef was killed in the last of the ten plagues that befell Egypt.

The Red Sea Crossing

The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory.Exodus 13:17-22 Moses took Joseph‘s (Imhotep‘s) bones with him.Exodus 13:19 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day.Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert.Exodus 13:20 Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changed his mind and pursued the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt’s chariots.Exodus 14:1-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow.Exodus 14:21-31 The mummy of Neferhotep has never been found.

The 14th Dynasty – Egypt Crippled

The Hyksos Invasion – The 15th Dynasty – The Second Intermediate Period

Egypts New Kingdom – The 18th Dynasty

Biblical References

Exodus 1:1-22 The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep)

Exodus 2:1-10 Moses birth and adoption by pharaoh’s daughter

Exodus 2:11-25 Moses (Amenemhet IV) has to flee to Midian

Exodus 2:23-25 The Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) dies while Moses is in exile

Exodus 3:1-22 Moses and the Burning Bush

Exodus 4:1-17 Signs for Moses

Exodus 4:18-31 Moses (Amenemhet IV) returns to Egypt

Exodus 5:1-23 Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) but he does not obey

Exodus 6:1-12 God remembers his Promise to Abraham

Exodus 6:13-30 Genealogy of Moses

Exodus 7:6 Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I)

Exodus 7:1-13 Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) to perform Miraculous Signs and deliver God’s Message : “Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me

Ten Plagues inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go:

Blood – Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs – Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats – Exodus 8:15-19 Flies – Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock – Exodus 9:1-7 Boils – Exodus 9:8-12 Hail – Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts –Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness – Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt’s Firtsborn – Exodus 11:1-10

Exodus 12:1-30 The Passover

Exodus 12:31-50 The Exodus

Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites took unleavened bread and large droves of livestock with them. The Egyptians also gave them considerable amounts of silver and gold and clothings.

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites assembled at Succoth

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age

Exodus 12:40 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years

Exodus 13:17-22 The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory

Exodus 13:19 Moses took Joseph’s (Imhotep’s) bones with him

Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day

Exodus 13:20 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert

Exodus 14:1-31 Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changes his mind and pursues the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt’s chariots

Exodus 14:21-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow

Exodus 15:22-27 After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites bypassed Marah where the waters were bitter and camped at Elim where there were 12 springs and 70 palms

Links

[The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut]

[The Pharaoh of the Exodus]

[Searching for Moses David Down]

[Neferhotep]

[The Exodus ]

[Pyramids of Ancient Egypt Answers in Genesis David Down]

[The Mysterious Hyksos Answers in Genesis John Ashton & David Down]

[The Pharaoh of the Exodus]

[Q&A Creation Ken Ham]

[Egyptian history and the Biblical record. ? A perfect match. Daniel Anderson]

[Scarab of Neferhotep I]

Evidence for the Israelites (JEWS) in Ancient Egypt

[Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep]

[The True Mt Sinai]

Moses and Amenemhet IV

References

  1.  Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, 231
  2.  Ken Ham Q&A Creation Ken Ham
  3.  The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut
Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Red sea, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Amenemhet I was the founder of the 12th dynasty. He was the vizier of his predecessor Mentuhotep IV who he may have assassinated.

The Amenemhet I pyramid at El-Lisht.
Amenmehet I was a vizier of Mentuhotep IV of the previous dynasty. He was not of royal descent. He is thought to have overthrown Mentuhotep IV and founded the 12th dynasty.
The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 yrs and was essentially the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
The pyramids of the 12th dynasty characteristically had a core that was made out of mudbricks and an external veneer that was made from limestone.
A large slave labour force was needed to make the mudbricks.
A workers village was found by Petrie in 1891 at Kahun. He found scarabs from the time of Sensuret II that indicated that it was occupied during the 12th dynasty up until the 13th dynasty. He also found evidence of a sudden exodus from the village in the 13th dynasty. He thought that many of the semitic slaves were Isralites.
Joseph came to Egypt at the age of 30 yrs and was 110 yrs when he died. The Jews lived in Egypt 430 years and then Moses lead them out of Egypt (The Exodus). The Israelites numbered only 70 when they came to Egypt in the ?third dynasty. By the 12th dynasty, they numbered over a million and the pharaoh had long forgotten their connection to Joseph (?Imhotep) who had saved Egypt from famine and may even have built the first pyramid.

Amenemhet I – the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 30 yrs (including a 10 yr coregency with his son Sensuret I) and then was assassinated.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

An ancient historian by the name of Josephus records that the Israelites were given the task of building pyramids.

The 12th dynasty pyramid of Sensuret II (Sesostris II) at Lahun.

The Works of Josephus

Antiquities of the Jews – Book II

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY YEARS.

FROM THE DEATH OF ISAAC TO THE EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT.

 

CHAPTER 9.

CONCERNING THE AFFLICTIONS THAT BEFELL THE HEBREWS IN EGYPT, DURING FOUR HUNDRED YEARS. (16)

1. NOW it happened that the Egyptians grew delicate and lazy, as to pains-taking, and gave themselves up to other pleasures, and in particular to the love of gain. They also became very ill-affected towards the Hebrews, as touched with envy at their prosperity; for when they saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, and were become eminent already in plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by their virtue and natural love of labor, they thought their increase was to their own detriment. And having, in length of time, forgotten the benefits they had received from Joseph, particularly the crown being now come into another family, they became very abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many ways of afflicting them; for they enjoined them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to build walls for their cities and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, upon its running over its own banks: they set them also to build pyramids, (17) and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor. And four hundred years did they spend under these afflictions; for they strove one against the other which should get the mastery, the Egyptians desiring to destroy the Israelites by these labors, and the Israelites desiring to hold out to the end under them.

(16) As to the affliction of Abraham’s posterity for 400 years, see Antiq. B. I. ch. 10. sect. 3; and as to what cities they built in Egypt, under Pharaoh Sesostris. and of Pharaoh Sesostris’s drowning in the Red Sea, see Essay on the Old Testament, Append. p. 132-162.
(17) Of this building of the pyramids of Egypt by the Israelites, see Perizonius Orig. Aegyptiac, ch. 21. It is not impossible they might build one or more of the small ones; but the larger ones seem much later. Only, if they be all built of stone, this does not so well agree with the Israelites’ labors, which are said to have been in brick, and not in stone, as Mr. Sandys observes in his Travels. p. 127, 128.
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The Pharaoh’s Daughter (Sobeknefru) found Moses in the Nile and raised him in her household. He became her son. Moses would have been next in line to the throne as Sobeknefru had no other children.

Sesostris III – (The father of Amenemhet III)

Amenemhet III – 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty – The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from. When Moses was 40 yrs old. He had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

Sobeknefru – The Princess who found baby Moses in a basket amongst the reids of the Nile. She adopted Moses and raised him as her son.

<< Exodus 2 >>

New International Version 1984


The Birth of Moses

1Now a man of the house of Levi married a Levite woman, 2and she became pregnant and gave birth to a son. When she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him for three months. 3But when she could hide him no longer, she got a papyrus basket for him and coated it with tar and pitch. Then she placed the child in it and put it among the reeds along the bank of the Nile. 4His sister stood at a distance to see what would happen to him.

5Then Pharaoh’s daughter went down to the Nile to bathe, and her attendants were walking along the river bank. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her slave girl to get it. 6She opened it and saw the baby. He was crying, and she felt sorry for him. “This is one of the Hebrew babies,” she said.

7Then his sister asked Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I go and get one of the Hebrew women to nurse the baby for you?”

8“Yes, go,” she answered. And the girl went and got the baby’s mother. 9Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this baby and nurse him for me, and I will pay you.” So the woman took the baby and nursed him. 10When the child grew older, she took him to Pharaoh’s daughter and he became her son. She named him Moses,a saying, “I drew him out of the water.”

Moses Flees to Midian

11One day, after Moses had grown up, he went out to where his own people were and watched them at their hard labor. He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. 12Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. 13The next day he went out and saw two Hebrews fighting. He asked the one in the wrong, “Why are you hitting your fellow Hebrew?”

14The man said, “Who made you ruler and judge over us? Are you thinking of killing me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid and thought, “What I did must have become known.”

15When Pharaoh heard of this, he tried to kill Moses, but Moses fled from Pharaoh and went to live in Midian, where he sat down by a well. 16Now a priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came to draw water and fill the troughs to water their father’s flock. 17Some shepherds came along and drove them away, but Moses got up and came to their rescue and watered their flock.

18When the girls returned to Reuel their father, he asked them, “Why have you returned so early today?”

19They answered, “An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds. He even drew water for us and watered the flock.”

20“And where is he?” he asked his daughters. “Why did you leave him? Invite him to have something to eat.”

21Moses agreed to stay with the man, who gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses in marriage. 22Zipporah gave birth to a son, and Moses named him Gershom,b saying, “I have become an alien in a foreign land.”

23During that long period, the king of Egypt died. The Israelites groaned in their slavery and cried out, and their cry for help because of their slavery went up to God. 24God heard their groaning and he remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac and with Jacob. 25So God looked on the Israelites and was concerned about them.

Amenemhat IV.  Could this be Moses of the Bible?

Amenemhat IV. Could this be Moses of the Bible?

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The last of the Great Pyramids. The Amenmehat III pyramid at Hawara. The 12th dynasty pyramids had a core of mudbricks and a limestone veneer. The limestone veneer has fallen away / been removed over the centuries exposing the core which is composed of millions of mudbricks.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The last of the Great Pyramids of Egypt

The entrance to the Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core made from mudbricks and an outer veneer made of limestone. Over the centuries, the outer limestone veneer has fallen away revealing the inner core which was made of mud bricks. There is also a lot of erosion. The mudbricks are likely to have been made by Israelite slaves who were in Egypt at the time. After the Exodus of the Israelites in the 13th dynasty (Neferhotep), no more large pyramids were constructed. Petrie found a workers village at Kahun in 1890. The artifacts he found in the village (namely the scarabs of Pharaohs) indicate that the village was constructed during the time of Sesostris II and was occupied until the 13th dynasty.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

KAHUN, PHARAOH’S MUD BRICK FACTORY

MAP OF EGYPT

KAHUN, THE MIDDLE KINGDOM WORKERS’ VILLAGE

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS OF ANCIENT EGYPT 

A box now in the Manchester Museum. Petrie found many such boxes beneath the floors of the houses he excavated in Kahun. They contained the skeletons of babies up to three months old, sometimes three in a box. They were probably the bones of the Israelite babies who were killed on Pharaoh’s orders (Exodus 1:16).

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Archaeologist Flinders Petrie relics from the 12th dynasty Israelite slave village at Kahun near Hawara in Egypt found in 1890


http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/texts/kahun/

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