Posts Tagged With: Israelite

Who were the Pharaohs of the Oppression?

The Israelites numbered about 70 when they first came to live in Egypt at the invitation of the Pharaoh whose vizier was Jacob’s 11th son Jospeh-Imhotep. They were allowed to live in the best part of the land; Goshen. Here they flourished and multiplied under the protection of Joseph who was second in charge of Egypt and had saved the country from a seven year famine by storing up grain to sell before the famine started. Joseph had brought up all the land of Egypt and had made the Pharaoh very rich and powerful. Joseph lived until the age of 110 years and served several pharaohs. When he died, he was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial – some 80 yrs after he first entered Egypt.

The Israelites came to Egypt in the 3rd dynasty when Netjerikhet was the Pharaoh. Pharaoh Netjerikhet came to be know as Pharaoh Djoser as time went by (the pharaoh of Joseph). The Israelites flourished and multiplied during the 3rd & 4th dynasties while Joseph was alive and continued to multiply during the 5th & 6th dynasties after his death. The 6th dynasty, which was based in Memphis in Lower Egypt, was contemporary with the 9th and 10th dynasties based in Herakleopolis and the 11th dynasty based in Thebes.

Amenemhet I - the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty.  He reigned for 30 yrs (including a 10 yr coregency with his son Sensuret I) and then was assassinated.

Amenemhet I – the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 30 yrs (including a 10 yr coregency with his son Sensuret I) and then was assassinated.

About 100 years after Joseph’s death, a pharaoh who did not know Joseph came to power. Amenemhet I was the vizier of Mentuhotep IV of the 11th dynasty based in Thebes (Upper Egypt). He assassinated Mentuhotep IV of the 11th dynasty and took over both Upper and Lower Egypt to start what is known as the 12th dynasty (or Egypt’s Middle Kingdom). The pharaohs of the middle kingdom did not like the Israelites and felt threatened by them. Fearing that they would join their enemies, they forced the Israelites into slavery.

The 12th dynasty pharaohs constructed their pyramids from mud brick with only a veneer of limestone. The 12th dynasty pharaohs needed a large slave labor force to make the mud bricks required for their pyramids. This became the task of the Israelites who by the time of the Exodus had come to number over two million. The 12th dynasty lasted some 200 years and during this time, 7 pyramids were constructed as well as the Labyrinth. The Labyrinth was considered one of wonders of the ancient world by Heroditis.

Moses was born during the co-reign of Senusret III and Amenemhet III about 4yrs into Amenemhet III’s reign. Amenemhet III built two pyramids and the Labyrinth. He was very cruel to the Israelites and it was probably he who ordered the midwives to kill the Hebrew baby boys. His daughter Sobeknefru was childless and there was no male heir to the throne. Sobeknefru adopted a Hebrew baby Moses that she found in a basket amongst the reeds of the Nile and she brought him up as her own in her household. He was known as Amenemhet IV.

When Amenemhet IV was old enough, 30yrs, he began a co-regency with Amenemhet III. This lasted 9 yrs and then Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared. This left no male heir to the throne. Consequently, Sobeknefru had to assume the throne but she only lived for 8yrs and then she died. When she died, the 12th dynasty ended and Egypt became unstable. There was a rapid succession of pharaohs in the 13th dynasty. The longest ruling was Neferhotep I who reigned for 11 years. It was Neferhotep I who was the pharaoh when Moses-Amenemhet IV returned from exile. Neferhotep I was the Exodus Pharaoh who chased the Israelites and whose army and chariots were drowned in the Red Sea.

Egypt was crippled by the Exodus of the Israelites and became vulnerable to invasion. Not long after the Exodus, the Hyksos, shepherd kings from Arabia, invaded Egypt and built a fort at Avaris. From there, they occupied and controlled Lower Egypt for the next 400 years.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

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Categories: 11th dynasty, 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Egypt lost all it’s chariots at the time of the Exodus. The Exodus would have immediately PRECEDED the dynasty in which chariots reappeared in Egypt.

The Hyksos used chariots to invade Egypt after the Exodus

The Hyksos were able to invade Egypt with little resistance because Egypt had lost it’s army and all it’s chariots at the time of the Exodus.

While the Hyksos are credited with having introduced the horse drawn chariot to Egypt, this should be an indication to Bible scholars that the Exodus took place just prior to the Hyksos invasion.

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No discoveries horse drawn chariots have been found prior to the 15th dynasty. This would tend to suggest that the Exodus took place before the 15th dynasty. One would not expect to find chariots of dynasties prior to the Exodus because they were all destroyed at the time of the Exodus.
Wyatt found chariot wheels covered with coral strewn across the bottom of the Red Sea. There was a well preserved golden 4 spoked chariot wheel. He also found six and eight spoked chariot wheels covered with coral from one side of the Red Sea to the other in the Gulf of Aqaba where there is a large beach and a natural land bridge at the opening of the Wadi Wadir, just a little bit north of Jabel Lawz on the opposite side. Wyatt also found a pair of columns which appeared to have been left by Solomon to mark the site of the Red Sea crossing at this point.
Unfortunately, as no examples of 12th dynasty chariots have been found, the chariot wheels found by Wyatt were dated to the 18th dynasty. This has lead many an archaeologist to go looking for the Exodus in the 18th dynasty. There is no evidence for a mass Exodus in the 18th dynasty. There was an exodus at the end of the second intermediate period but this is when the Hyksos kings were evicted from Egypt and is clearly not the Israelite exodus.
The Bible states that the exodus pharaoh pursued the Israelites with all of Egypt’s chariots and that these were lost in the Red Sea. One would, therefore, not expect to find a chariot that predated the exodus. If a chariot has been found, other than in the Red Sea, then it must have been produced after the Exodus.
While the Hyksos (15th dynasty) did use chariots to invade and occupy lower Egypt, they were only able to do this because the Egyptian army had been decimated by the Exodus and all of it’s chariots were at the bottom of the Red Sea.
Many historians and archaeologists believe that the horse drawn chariot was introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos because there are no findings of 12th and 13th dynasty chariots. If all of Egypt’s chariots were lost at the time of the exodus, the finding of 15th dynasty chariots should suggest that the Exodus occurred prior to the 15th dynasty, namely the 13th dynasty. It also follows that the chariot wheels found in the Red Sea by Wyatt were from the 12th and 13th dynasties.

The Hyksos were credited with having introduced the chariot to Egypt only because no 12th and 13th dynasty chariots have been found until 1978 when Wyatt discovered chariot wheels covered with coral strewn across the bottom of the Red Sea at Nuweiba.   The fact that Hyksos chariots are the earliest surviving chariots to have been found means that the Exodus took place immediately before the Hyksos entered Egypt.  This would further support a 13th dynasty Exodus.

Also supporting a 13th dynasty exodus is the prolific use of mudbricks in the 12th dynasty and the finding of a slave village at Kahun that was rapidly evacuated in the 13th dynasty when Neferhotep I was ruling (as evidenced by scarabs found by Petrie).   Amenemhet III has the credentials to be the pharaoh of Moses birth and the pharaoh that Moses fled from.  Sobeknefru has the credentials to be Moses foster mother and Amenemhet IV has the credentials to be Moses himself!

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, 4 spoke, 8 spoke, chariot wheels, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Red sea, six spoke, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

David Down’s revised Egyptian Chronology places Moses in the 12th dynasty. With a long sojourn and no first intermediate period, his chronology fits with Joseph being Imhotep.

A more like arrangement of the Egyptian dynasties historically and geographically

A more likely arrangement of the Egyptian dynasties historically and geographically

 

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Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Did the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt last 400 Years or 430 years?

It was foretold to Abraham in a dream that his descendants would serve as slaves in a foreign land for 400 yrs (or 4 generations of priests).  Genesis 15:12-16

Yet the Bible also tells us that the Israelites lived in Egypt for 430 years to the very day. Exodus 12:40-41

The Israelite Oppression ended when the 12th dynasty ended, about 10 years after Moses / Amenemhet IV went into exile at the age of 40 years.  This was 400 years after Jacob and his family came to Egypt.  The Exodus did not take place until 30 years into the 13th dynasty when Moses / Amenemhet IV returned to confront Neferhotep I at the age of 80 years.

The Israelite oppression lasted 400 years – it ended when the 12th dynasty ended.  No more pyramids were built after the 12th dynasty.  The 13th dynasty was very chaotic and the Pharaohs did not focus on oppressing the Israelites because their thrones were not stable enough and maybe their attitude towards the Israelites was slightly more sympathetic than that of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.  The Exodus occurred 30 years into the 13th dynasty during the reign of Neferhotep I who was the longest ruling pharaoh of that dynasty (11 years).

Amenemhet III would have reigned between 2-6 years after Moses fled to Midian and Sobekneferu would have reigned between 4-8 years after her father Amenemhet III and then she died.  When she died, the 12th dynasty ended as there was no heir to the throne.  The result was that Egypt fell into Chaos.  There was a rapid succession of Pharaohs in the 13th dynasty and as a result, the Israelites were not oppressed during this time.  They were able to keep multiplying and prepare to leave Egypt.

The Exodus occurred exactly 40 years after Moses fled to Midian and about 30 years after the 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobeknefru.

Categories: 13th Dynasty, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

What are the implications for Israel, Islam and Christianity if the mud bricks in the 12th dynasty pyramids were made by Israelites?

The Abrahamic faiths, Christianity, Judaism and Islam all have their roots in Egypt.

Abraham, Joseph and Moses are common to all these religions.

They were real people who are considered the patriarchs of the faith.

Their ancestry and what they achieved is history and it is recorded in the Bible.

In an age when atheism and evolution are fairly common, it is good to be able to give evidence that the Bible is historically accurate.

Owing to the gross inaccuracies of the traditional Egptian chronology, many historians and archaeologists have been looking for evidence of the Jews in Egypt in the wrong dynasties.  Not supprisingly, they haven’t found any.

The mud brick pyramids of the 12th dynasty have been staring us so blatently in the face, yet somehow, over the ages, the fact that the Israelites made the mudbricks that went into them has been forgotten.  Fact has become legend, and legend myth.

The loss of historical records (eg when the Alexandrian library burnt down), the white washing of history to cover up humiliating defeats, wars, natural disasters and pilfering has also contributed.  For almost 2000 years, the art of reading heiroglyphics was lost and only recently recovered when the Rosetta stone was found.

When animals become extinct, people begin to doubt they ever existed.

When people no longer believe that the Bible is true, the fact that the Jews were in Egypt and played a big role in building the pyramids also gets lost.

Now, nobody can explain how the pyramids came to be.  Some people have even suggested that they were made by aliens.

The Bible is the oldest, most reliable and ubiquitous source of historical information that we have.  If we ignore it, it is no wonder that we do not know who built the pyramids.

When we believe it to be true, archaeological evidence and historical records and geological information just seem to fall into place.

The Bible provides the only credible explanation for where we come from and how the pyramids came to be.

Isn’t God awsome and marvelous!!

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Sobeknefru was the Princess that found Moses floating in a basket on among the reeds of the Nile.

The Princess who found baby Moses in a basket amongst the reids of the Nile.  Her father Amenemhet III had directed the Egyptian midwives to kill all Hebrew children, She adopted Moses and raised him as an Egyptian.

The Princess who found baby Moses in a basket amongst the reeds of the Nile. Her father Amenemhet III had directed the Egyptian midwives to kill all Hebrew children, She adopted Moses and raised him as an Egyptian.

 

Sobeknefru reigned over Egypt for 4 years at the end of the 12th dynasty (End of the Middle Kingdom). When she died, the 12th dynasty ended as she had no heirs to take over the throne. She is thought to have been the Princess that found Moses floating in a basket among the reeds of the Nile at a time when her father / grandfather Amenemhet III / Sesostris III was ordering that the babies of the Hebrew slaves be killed by drowning them in the Nile. Sobeknefru adopted Moses and brought him up as her own son. She groomed Moses to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV. Moses may have even co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV. Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared before the death of Amenemhet III leaving no male heirs to take over the throne when he died. Consequently, Sobekneferu became the first Queen of Egypt. She only reigned for 4 years (possibly 8 years). Her Kingdom included Upper and Lower Egypt, Elephantine and Lower Nubia. Revised dates of her reign: 1483-1479 BC (approximately)

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The Last of the Great Pyramids. Like other 12th dynasty pyramids, the mud bricks in it’s core were probably made by Hebrew slaves.

Amenemhet III was the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty of Egypt. He built 2 pyramids; the Black Pyramid at Dashur and this one at Hawara.
While the pyramids of the Old Kingdom were made of solid limestone blocks, the 12th dynasty (Middle Kingdom) pyramids had a core that was made of bricks (containing mud and straw) and an outer veneer of limestone.
Over the centuries, the outer veneer has fallen down as a result of erosion and earth quakes or stolen by people to be used elsewhere. What remains is the mud brick core which has been eroded further by the weather.
If you look carefully, the straw within the mud bricks is still quite easy to see.
It would have taken an enormous number of slaves to make this number of mud bricks, let a lone assemble them.
It is likely that the mud bricks in these 12th dynasty pyramids were made by Hebrew slaves prior to the Exodus.

Amenemhet III would have been the Pharaoh that Moses fled from.

When the Exodus took place in 1445 BC, there were not enough slaves left in Egypt to make mud bricks  and so no more pyramids were built.
The dates do not match with the traditional dates calculated from Manetho because many dynasties and regencies ran in parallel and some dynasties have been counted twice. The Egyptian Chronology needs to be revised and then it will match the Biblical Chronology.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

At the time of the Exodus, the Israelites numbered about 2 Million

The 12th dynasty Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The limestone veneer has fallen away over the centuries exposing the inner core composed of millions of mudbricks reinforced with straw.  As there is very little rain in Lahun & Hawara (27mm per year), the mud bricks have remained in surprisingly good condition given that the pyramid is over 3000 years old and the mudbricks are exposed to the weather.

The Exodus

<< Exodus 12 >>

31During the night Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Up! Leave my people, you and the Israelites! Go, worship the Lord as you have requested. 32Take your flocks and herds, as you have said, and go. And also bless me.”

33The Egyptians urged the people to hurry and leave the country. “For otherwise,” they said, “we will all die!” 34So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, and carried it on their shoulders in kneading troughs wrapped in clothing. 35The Israelites did as Moses instructed and asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and gold and for clothing. 36The Lord had made the Egyptians favorably disposed toward the people, and they gave them what they asked for; so they plundered the Egyptians.

37The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth. There were about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children. 38Many other people went up with them, as well as large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds. 39With the dough they had brought from Egypt, they baked cakes of unleavened bread. The dough was without yeast because they had been driven out of Egypt and did not have time to prepare food for themselves.

40Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egyptb was 430 years. 41At the end of the 430 years, to the very day, all the Lord’s divisions left Egypt. 42Because the Lord kept vigil that night to bring them out of Egypt, on this night all the Israelites are to keep vigil to honor the Lord for the generations to come.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

An ancient historian by the name of Josephus records that the Israelites were given the task of building pyramids.

The 12th dynasty pyramid of Sensuret II (Sesostris II) at Lahun.

The Works of Josephus

Antiquities of the Jews – Book II

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY YEARS.

FROM THE DEATH OF ISAAC TO THE EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT.

 

CHAPTER 9.

CONCERNING THE AFFLICTIONS THAT BEFELL THE HEBREWS IN EGYPT, DURING FOUR HUNDRED YEARS. (16)

1. NOW it happened that the Egyptians grew delicate and lazy, as to pains-taking, and gave themselves up to other pleasures, and in particular to the love of gain. They also became very ill-affected towards the Hebrews, as touched with envy at their prosperity; for when they saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, and were become eminent already in plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by their virtue and natural love of labor, they thought their increase was to their own detriment. And having, in length of time, forgotten the benefits they had received from Joseph, particularly the crown being now come into another family, they became very abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many ways of afflicting them; for they enjoined them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to build walls for their cities and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, upon its running over its own banks: they set them also to build pyramids, (17) and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor. And four hundred years did they spend under these afflictions; for they strove one against the other which should get the mastery, the Egyptians desiring to destroy the Israelites by these labors, and the Israelites desiring to hold out to the end under them.

(16) As to the affliction of Abraham’s posterity for 400 years, see Antiq. B. I. ch. 10. sect. 3; and as to what cities they built in Egypt, under Pharaoh Sesostris. and of Pharaoh Sesostris’s drowning in the Red Sea, see Essay on the Old Testament, Append. p. 132-162.
(17) Of this building of the pyramids of Egypt by the Israelites, see Perizonius Orig. Aegyptiac, ch. 21. It is not impossible they might build one or more of the small ones; but the larger ones seem much later. Only, if they be all built of stone, this does not so well agree with the Israelites’ labors, which are said to have been in brick, and not in stone, as Mr. Sandys observes in his Travels. p. 127, 128.
Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Pharaohs (of the 12th dynasty) oppressed the Israelites and forced them to make mud bricks reinforced with straw.

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<< Exodus 5 >>

New International Version 1984


Bricks Without Straw

1Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘Let my people go, so that they may hold a festival to me in the desert.’”

2Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey him and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord and I will not let Israel go.”

3Then they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Now let us take a three-day journey into the desert to offer sacrifices to the Lord our God, or he may strike us with plagues or with the sword.”

4But the king of Egypt said, “Moses and Aaron, why are you taking the people away from their labor? Get back to your work!” 5Then Pharaoh said, “Look, the people of the land are now numerous, and you are stopping them from working.”

6That same day Pharaoh gave this order to the slave drivers and foremen in charge of the people: 7“You are no longer to supply the people with straw for making bricks; let them go and gather their own straw. 8But require them to make the same number of bricks as before; don’t reduce the quota. They are lazy; that is why they are crying out, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to our God.’ 9Make the work harder for the men so that they keep working and pay no attention to lies.”

10Then the slave drivers and the foremen went out and said to the people, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I will not give you any more straw. 11Go and get your own straw wherever you can find it, but your work will not be reduced at all.’” 12So the people scattered all over Egypt to gather stubble to use for straw. 13The slave drivers kept pressing them, saying, “Complete the work required of you for each day, just as when you had straw.” 14The Israelite foremen appointed by Pharaoh’s slave drivers were beaten and were asked, “Why didn’t you meet your quota of bricks yesterday or today, as before?”

15Then the Israelite foremen went and appealed to Pharaoh: “Why have you treated your servants this way? 16Your servants are given no straw, yet we are told, ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are being beaten, but the fault is with your own people.”

17Pharaoh said, “Lazy, that’s what you are—lazy! That is why you keep saying, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to the Lord.’ 18Now get to work. You will not be given any straw, yet you must produce your full quota of bricks.”

19The Israelite foremen realized they were in trouble when they were told, “You are not to reduce the number of bricks required of you for each day.” 20When they left Pharaoh, they found Moses and Aaron waiting to meet them, 21and they said, “May the Lord look upon you and judge you! You have made us a stench to Pharaoh and his officials and have put a sword in their hand to kill us.”

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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