Timelines

History aligned with the Bible

historicalalignmenttimelinenoahtochrist4.1

History and the Bible aligned – View PDF

Advertisements
Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

A Long Sojourn with a Revised Egyptian Chronology

Landmarks in the Egyptian Timeline

Timeline from Noah to Christ. David Down's Revised Egyptian Chronology. Biblical Chronology with a long sojourn.

Timeline from Noah to Christ.
David Down’s Revised Egyptian Chronology.
Biblical Chronology with a long sojourn.

The Biblical Chronology (long sojourn) aligned with Down’s Revised Egyptian Chronology.

While the Biblical timeline is fairly established and accepted by most theologians, there is still some debate about the length of time that the Israelites were in Egypt. This is of critical importance as it would affect all dates prior to the Exodus. In this alignment, a long sojourn is assumed to be correct. This results in very good synchronization between the Bible and History when aligned with Down’s revised Egyptian Chronology. This is supported by considerable archaeological evidence.

David Down is a well known archaeologist who has been to Egypt numerous times on archaeological missions. He has proposed an alternative time line based upon his extensive archaeological experience excavating the Holy Lands and his knowledge of Egyptian history.

The Traditional Egyptian Chronology based upon the work Manetho is now known to have multiple problems.

Manetho, who lived during the time of Alexander the Great, was fortunate enough to have access to the Alexandrian library before it was burnt down and wrote extensively on Egyptian History. Unfortunately, his works were destroyed too when the Alexandrian Library was burnt down by the Romans. All we have is the notes of people who read his work. They made a list of pharaohs and how long they reigned and grouped them into dynasties. Since then, historians have come along and used these lists to construct the Egyptian Chronology. Unfortunately, the early historians assumed that only one pharaoh was ruling at a time and built a time line based on sequential reigns. We now know that many of these dynasties ran in parallel in different parts of the country and what’s more, many pharaohs practiced co-regency at the beginning and the end of their reigns.

Other archaeologists and historians like Usher, Velicovsky, Sweeney, Rhol, Moller and numerous others have suggested alternative Egyptian Chronologies but they do not align completely with the Bible and suggest synchronisms that are not supported by archaeologicial evidence or history.

As there are numerous alternative or Revised Egyptian Chronologies, the one that is used here in this alignment is identified by the person that came up with it, namely David Down.

David Down in his book, Unwrapping the Pharaohs, tries to synchronize it with a Biblical chronology that assumes a short sojourn. This works well from the Exodus on wards but produces poor sychronisms for Biblical figures prior to Moses.

In this diagram, the Biblical Chronology with a long sojourn has been aligned with the Revised Egyptian Chronology of David Down without changing Down’s revised Egyptian Chronology (with the exception of allowing for co-regency in the 12th dynasty)

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Timelines | Leave a comment

David Down’s revised Egyptian Chronology places Moses in the 12th dynasty. With a long sojourn and no first intermediate period, his chronology fits with Joseph being Imhotep.

A more like arrangement of the Egyptian dynasties historically and geographically

A more likely arrangement of the Egyptian dynasties historically and geographically

 

kingdomsofegyptandisrael5

 

 

 

egyptian_dynasties_and_the_bible4

 

 

 

 

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Did the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt last 400 Years or 430 years?

It was foretold to Abraham in a dream that his descendants would serve as slaves in a foreign land for 400 yrs (or 4 generations of priests).  Genesis 15:12-16

Yet the Bible also tells us that the Israelites lived in Egypt for 430 years to the very day. Exodus 12:40-41

The Israelite Oppression ended when the 12th dynasty ended, about 10 years after Moses / Amenemhet IV went into exile at the age of 40 years.  This was 400 years after Jacob and his family came to Egypt.  The Exodus did not take place until 30 years into the 13th dynasty when Moses / Amenemhet IV returned to confront Neferhotep I at the age of 80 years.

The Israelite oppression lasted 400 years – it ended when the 12th dynasty ended.  No more pyramids were built after the 12th dynasty.  The 13th dynasty was very chaotic and the Pharaohs did not focus on oppressing the Israelites because their thrones were not stable enough and maybe their attitude towards the Israelites was slightly more sympathetic than that of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.  The Exodus occurred 30 years into the 13th dynasty during the reign of Neferhotep I who was the longest ruling pharaoh of that dynasty (11 years).

Amenemhet III would have reigned between 2-6 years after Moses fled to Midian and Sobekneferu would have reigned between 4-8 years after her father Amenemhet III and then she died.  When she died, the 12th dynasty ended as there was no heir to the throne.  The result was that Egypt fell into Chaos.  There was a rapid succession of Pharaohs in the 13th dynasty and as a result, the Israelites were not oppressed during this time.  They were able to keep multiplying and prepare to leave Egypt.

The Exodus occurred exactly 40 years after Moses fled to Midian and about 30 years after the 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobeknefru.

Categories: 13th Dynasty, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The relationship between the Kingdoms of Egypt and the Phases of Israel

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Timelines, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Egyptian History and the Bible reconciled

Summary

The Israelites
Leader
Pharaohs
Joseph (Imhotep) invitesJacob to come to Egypt.
Jacob and his sons move to Egypt and settle in the land of Ra.
Netjerikhet / Djoser (3rd dynasty)Vizier: Imhotep = Joseph
The Israelites Multiply in Egypt
The Hebrews multiply and become numerous. Joseph / Imhotep protects them for 70 years.
3rd Dynasty 4th dynasty 5th dynasty 6th dynasty(dynasties 7-11 are contemporary with other dynasties)
Oppression
Moses raised by Sobeknefru in Pharaoh’s household until 40 years old during the reign of Amenemhet III.Moses co-reigns with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV during this time
Amenemhet I Sesostris I Sesostrist II Amenemhet IISesostris III Amenemhet III (12th dynasty)
Waiting
Moses (Amenemhet IV) flees to Midian where he lives with Jethro for 40 years
Amenemhet III Sobekneferu (12th dynasty)Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Exodus
Moses becomes the leader of the Jews and Aaron their spokesman
Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Wilderness
Moses leads the Israelites in the Wilderness for 40 years. During this time, Moses receives the Law on Mt Sinai, sets up the Sanctuary and positions the Israelites to take the Promised Land
Sobekhotep IV (13th dynasty)14th dynasty
Canaan – Judges
Moses dies on Mt Nebo in Moab just before the Israelites invade Canaan (The Promised Land)Israel is ruled by ‘Judges’
Hyksos (15th dynasty))(16th and 17th dynasties contemporary with 15th)
Israel United – Kingship
Saul David Solomon
Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Hatshetsup (18th dynasty)
Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Timelines | Leave a comment

The Pyramids were not made by ‘Aliens’ from another planet. The Israelites, however, were aliens to Egypt and did help make mud bricks for the 12th dynasty pyramids.

Pharaohs of the Israelite Oppression

The period when the Israelites were oppressed in Egypt corresponds to the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty required a large slave labour force for the construction of their pyramids and other public works.

The Pyramids of the 12th dynasty, unlike those of earlier dynasties, were made almost entirely of mud bricks which were finished with a limestone veneer. Over the centuries, the limestone veneer has fallen away due to erosion, earthquakes and pilfering. What remains is the inner cores of the pyramids which contain millions of mud bricks.

The Israelites were given the task of making these mud bricks and working in the fields. The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 years and at least seven pyramids were constructed during this time.

The Hebrew Oppression probably began with Amenemhet I, the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. By the time of Sesostris II, a workers villages had been built to house the slaves working on the pyramids at Hawara and Dashur. These villages were occupied up until the time of the Neferhotep I when the exodus occurred.

The pharaohs of the oppression therefore included: Amenemhet ISesostris ISesostris IIAmenemhet IISesostris IIIAmenemhet IIISobekneferu and the 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I.

Of note was Amenemhet III who was the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 46 yrs but had a 20 year co-regency with his father Sesostris III at the beginning of his reign.Moses was born early in the reign of Amenemhet III. It was Amenemhet III who tried to kill the male Israelite babies at birth. It was his daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses in a basket among the reeds of the Nile and adopted him and raised him as her own. Moses was groomed to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV and may have even been co-regent withAmenemhet III for 9 years (as Amenemhet IV). Moses never got to rule by himself. When his affections for the Israelites became known, Moses (alias Amenemhet IV) had to go into exile in Midian or be killed by Amenemhet III.

Pharaohs during the time of Moses’ Exile

Moses (Amenemhet IV) was in exile in Midian for the last few years of Amenemhet III‘s reign and during the reign of Sobekneferu.Exodus 2:23-25

Moses remained in exile for much of the 13th dynasty from the reign of Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I.

Pharaoh of the Exodus

Neferhotep I was one of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to the Turin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty. Neferhotep Iwas succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[4] (Wahneferhotep).[5] He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. Moses (at the age of 80 years) and Aaron (aged 83 years) would have contronted Neferhotep in 1446BC which is when the Exodus occurred. Neferhotep I‘s mummy has never been found because he drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites who were leaving Egypt (the Exodus). The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Dabawere occupied up until the time of Neferhotep IScarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sesostris II up until Neferhotep I were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahunindicating that it was Neferhotep I who was reigning when the Exodus occurred.[6] These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty.

Pharaohs when Israel was in the Wilderness

Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[4] (Wahneferhotep).[5]

A 14th dynasty started but did not last long.

The Hyksos saw their chance to become established in the region and so they built a fort at Avaris on Egypt’s border.

From Avaris, they gradually began to occupy and take over Lower Egypt (The 15th dynasty) where they demanded tribute from the Nomarchs of the North and the South (The 16th dynasty in ?Lower Egypt and 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt).

Pharaohs during the time of the Judges in the Promised Land

Moses (Amenemhet IV) never got to enter the Promised Land. Moses only saw it from a distance.

The Israelites spent 40 years in the Wilderness before Joshua lead them into the Promised land (Canaan). Israel was then ruled by Judges for the next 360 years. This corresponds to Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period.

The Hyksos (Amalekites) took over and ruled Lower Egypt (15th dynasty) for much of the Second Intermediate Period.

Upper Egypt was governed by the Pharaohs of the 17th dynasty although the Hyksos kings who were based in Avaris in Lower Egypt made them pay homage. The second last Pharaoh of the 17th dynasty Seqenenre was actually arrested and taken to Avaris by Apopi II (Agag) where he died.

This provolked Kahmose, the last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt (also the son of Seqenenre) to lead a rebellion against the Hyksos (Amalekites). Eventually, the Hyksos(Amalekites) were defeated and forced to leave Egypt where they encountered Saul of Israel who virtually wiped them out. Their king Apopi II (Agag) was captured alive and taken to Samuel who put him to death.

Pharaohs during the time of the Kings when Israel was united

Ahmose I, the brother of Kahmose and son of Seqenenre became the first Pharaoh of Egypt’s New Kingdom (18th dynasty) at a time when King Saul of Israel was on the throne.

Summary

The Israelites Moses Pharaohs
Oppression Moses raised by Sobeknefru in Pharaoh’s household until 40 years old during the reign of Amenemhet III.  Moses co-reigns with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV during this time Amenemhet ISesostris ISesostris IIAmenemhet IISesostris IIIAmenemhet III. (12th dynasty)
Waiting Moses (Amenemhet IV) flees to Midian where he lives with Jethro for 40 years Amenemhet IIISobekneferu (12th dynasty) Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Exodus Moses becomes the leader of the Jews and Aaron their spokesman Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Wilderness Moses leads the Israelites in the Wilderness for 40 years. During this time, Moses receives the Law on Mt Sinai, sets up the Sanctuary and positions the Israelites to take the Promised Land Sobekhotep IV (13th dynasty)14th dynasty
Canaan Moses dies on Mt Nebo in Moab just before the Israelites invade Canaan (The Promised Land).  Israel is ruled by ‘Judges’ Hyksos (15th dynasty)
Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Amenemhet IV – Moses!!

Amenemhat IV.  Could this be Moses of the Bible?

Amenemhat IV. Could this be Moses of the Bible?

Moses was brought up as Egyptian Royalty for the first 40 years of his life. After that, he fled to Midian and stayed there for 40 years. When he was 80 years old, he returned to Egypt to confront a different Pharaoh with the message that God had given him. Amenemhet IV co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years and then suddenly disappeared. Sobeknefru, the sister or daughter of Amenemhet III, was childless and seems to have adopted Amenemhet IV (Moses). As he disappeared, Sobeknefru had to become the Queen (Pharaoh) when her brother or father, Amenemhet III died. She reigned for almost 4 years and then she died. There was nobody to inherit the throne when she died and so the 12th dynasty ended. Egypt became destabilized and a number of pharaohs followed in quick succession until Neferhotep of the 13th dynasty. Neferhotep was the Pharaoh when Moses returned to Egypt at the age of 80. Neferhotep and his army, with over 600 chariots, chased the Israelites when they did not return form a gathering in the desert to worship their God. When they got to the Nuweiba, the Israelites were able to cross the Red Sea but when Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they all drowned. Neferhotep’s brother had to take over the throne. He did not last long as he was easy pickings for the Hyksos without the Egyptian army and their chariots to help him.

Amenemhet II

This is Amenemhet II – the the 3rd pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. The father of Sesostris II.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Red sea, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Placing Joseph in the 3rd dynasty and Moses in the 12th dynasties not only fits very well with the archaeological evidence, it fits very well with the Biblical account and shows how Majestic God is.

Many scholars now realize that Moses was born during the 12th dynasty when Amenemhet III was pharaoh and the Exodus occurred around 1445bc during the 13th dynasty when Neferhotep was Pharaoh.

There is much archaeological evidence to support this revelation, however, it means that the traditional dates of the 12th and 13th dynasties need to be revised.

http://www.diggingsonline.com/pages/rese/dyns/yusef.htm

When it comes to locating Joseph in the history of Egypt, there are two schools of thought.

The Bible says that the Israelites sojourned in Egypt for 430 years.  Exodus 12:40 says “the length of time that the Israelites live in Egypt was 430 years.”

The New Testament also refers to this 430 years.  Galations 3:17 says ” The law, introduced 430 years later, does not set aside the covenant previously established by God and thus do away with the promise. “

Because of this many scholars believe that the 430yrs commenced with the promise being given to Abraham 215yrs before Jacob and his family moved to Egypt.

The result of this is that some scholars believe that Joseph came only 215 years before Moses lead the Israelites out of Egypt.

http://www.ancientexodus.com/topics/index/new-york-times-book-review/

http://www.specialtyinterests.net/exodus.html

Other scholars believe that the Joseph was 430 years before the Exodus.

Joseph went to Egypt some 9-10 yrs before Jacob did.

When Jacob and his family went to Egypt, the Israelites numbered about 70.   When they left Egypt they numbered around 2 million.  They needed time time multipy to this number.  Not withstanding this, it is obviously very important to know whether the Isralites were in Egypt for 430 years or 215 years so that we know in which dynasty to look for Joseph.

It is also important to know how the Egyptian dynasties are ordered.

People who believe in a 215 yr sojourn in Egypt look for Joseph earlier in the 12th dynasty and have nominated Mentuhotep as a possibility.

People who believe in a 430yr sojourn in Egypt look for Joseph in an earlier dynasty and given the similarities between Joseph and Imhotep, have tended to place Joseph in the 3rd dynasty.

Placing Joseph in the 3rd dynasty would require an even greater revision of Egyptian history and a complete revision of the Chronology to allow for parallel dynasties running concurrently in the North and the South and also for the common practice of coregency.

This would bring Egyptian history into complete agreement with the Bible.

One of the problems of placing Joseph in the 12th dynasty means that the flood of Noah would most likely have occurred during during one of the earlier dynasties (2450bc) and this is not only out of keeping with the Bible but there is no archaeological evidence of a worldwide flood during any Egyptian dynasty.

The Bible records that Noah had a grandson named Mizraim who seems to be one of the Patriarchs of Egypt.   The flood would, therefore, have preceded even the predynastic periods of Egyptian History.

Even Manetho, whom most archaeologist regard as the most authoritative source of information on the chronology of Egyptian history, believed that Mizraim and Menes (the first Pharaoh) were the same person.

Placing Joseph in the 3rd dynasty and Moses in the 12th dynasties not only fits very well with the archaeological evidence, it fits very well with the Biblical account.  What we know about these people from the Historical records can then be used to fill in the gaps in the Biblical record revealing how miraculous, amazing and glorious the Hand of God has been in dealing with mankind.

Categories: Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Chronology of Egyptian History needs to be revised

A more likely arrangement of the Egyptian dynasties historically and geographically

http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v3/n2/dating-pyramids

Categories: Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.