Posts Tagged With: Oppression

Did the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt last 400 Years or 430 years?

It was foretold to Abraham in a dream that his descendants would serve as slaves in a foreign land for 400 yrs (or 4 generations of priests).  Genesis 15:12-16

Yet the Bible also tells us that the Israelites lived in Egypt for 430 years to the very day. Exodus 12:40-41

The Israelite Oppression ended when the 12th dynasty ended, about 10 years after Moses / Amenemhet IV went into exile at the age of 40 years.  This was 400 years after Jacob and his family came to Egypt.  The Exodus did not take place until 30 years into the 13th dynasty when Moses / Amenemhet IV returned to confront Neferhotep I at the age of 80 years.

The Israelite oppression lasted 400 years – it ended when the 12th dynasty ended.  No more pyramids were built after the 12th dynasty.  The 13th dynasty was very chaotic and the Pharaohs did not focus on oppressing the Israelites because their thrones were not stable enough and maybe their attitude towards the Israelites was slightly more sympathetic than that of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.  The Exodus occurred 30 years into the 13th dynasty during the reign of Neferhotep I who was the longest ruling pharaoh of that dynasty (11 years).

Amenemhet III would have reigned between 2-6 years after Moses fled to Midian and Sobekneferu would have reigned between 4-8 years after her father Amenemhet III and then she died.  When she died, the 12th dynasty ended as there was no heir to the throne.  The result was that Egypt fell into Chaos.  There was a rapid succession of Pharaohs in the 13th dynasty and as a result, the Israelites were not oppressed during this time.  They were able to keep multiplying and prepare to leave Egypt.

The Exodus occurred exactly 40 years after Moses fled to Midian and about 30 years after the 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobeknefru.

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Categories: 13th Dynasty, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Moses was adopted by Sobekneferu and raised as her own during the reign of Amenemhet III

Growing up in Pharaoh’s Household – the first 40 yrs

The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep). Exodus 1:1-22

Netjerikhet / Djoser (the pharaoh Joseph served) allowed the Jacob and his family to live in the most fertile part of the land of Egypt where they multiplied and became numerous.Joseph (Imhotep) ensured that the Jews were able to multiply without hinderance from the Egyptians. Joseph died at the age of 110 years, 80 years after he became the vizier (second in charge) under Pharaoh. Joseph would have lived well into the 4th dynasty and advised several pharaohs.

It was not until quite some time after Joseph‘s death, that a new Pharaoh Amenemhet I came to power. Amenemhet I was concerned that the Jews were becoming too numerous. He was afraid that they would join their enemies and fight against him.

Amenemhet I (the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty) was the vizier of Mentuhotep IV (last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty). The Jews were treated well in the 11th dynasty. Amenemhet I may have even assasinated Mentuhotep IV to take power. He had a different attitude towards the Jews. He forced the Jews to make mud bricks and work the field.

Other pharaohs of the 12th dynasty continued in this vein. They needed a large slave labor force to make mud bricks for their building exploits. The 12th dynasty pyramids, unlike pyramids of earlier dynasties, were made of mud bricks and only had a limestone veneer on the outside. The seven great pyramids of the 12th dynasty were constructed over a 200 year period. Each of the Pyramids contained millions of mud bricks.

By the end of the 12th dynasty, the Jews had come to number nearly 2 million with at least 600000 men of fighting age. If the Jews just produced one mud brick per person per day 5 days per week for 200 years, that would be a lot of mudbricks!!! More than enough for the needs of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.

The 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty Amenemhet III made two pyramids and also constructed the Labyrinth (a structure containing over 1000 rooms and considered on of the wonders of the ancient world). The Labyrinth was also constructed out of mud bricks. Moses was born during the reign of Amenemhet III at a time when he was co-reigning with his father Sesostris III. It was one of these pharaohs who ordered the Egyptian midwives to kill the Hebrew babies if they were male. It was Amenemhet III‘s daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses amongst the reeds of the Nile when she was bathing. Moses was just three months old at the time and had been left there by his sister Miriam who was keeping an eye on him.Sobekneferu allowed the Hebrew slave Jochebed (who was actually Moses‘s mother), to nurse him until he was old enough and then Sobekneferu took him as her own son.Sobekneferu would have groomed Moses to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IVExodus 2:1-10

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Moses was born in 1526BC – between the 3rd and 6th year of the reign of Amenemhet III when he was co-regent with Sesostris III.

Amenemhet III – Amenemhat III – Nimaatre was considered by some to be the greatest pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom. He was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 46 years over Upper and Lower Egypt, Elephantine and Lower Nubia. He may have had a long co-regency (of 20 years) with his father, Sesostris III. The Hebrews / Jews / Israelites were in Egypt at this time and the pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had enslaved them and forced them to work the fields and make mudbricks for the inner core of their pyramids and other public works. Moses was born to the Hebrew slave Jochebed about 4-6 years into Amenemhet III’s reign (approximately 1526BC). Sesostris III was co-reigning with Amenemhet III at the time Moses was born. It was either Sesostris III or Amenemhet III who ordered the Egyptian midwives to drown the Hebrew babies if they were male. Moses was left in a basket in the Nile to be found by the Princess Sobeknefru. Moses was adopted and raised by Sobeknefru who was childless. She raised Moses as her own son in pharaoh’s household. She would have been grooming Moses to be the next pharaoh (Amenemhet IV). Towards the end of Amenemhet III’s reign, he had a co-regency with Amenemhet IV lasting 9 years. (The revised dates of Amenemhet IV’s co-reign: approximately 1495-1986BC) When Moses (Amenemhet IV) was 40 years old, he killed an Egyptian official for beating a Hebrew slave, revealing his loyalties to the Hebrews. As a consequence, Moses / Amenemhet IV was not suitable to be an Egyptian Pharaoh and had to fee from Amenemhet III once this became known to the pharaoh. This left Amenemhet III with no male heir to the throne. When Amenemhet III died a few years later, his daughter Sobekneferu succeeded him to become the last pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. The revised dates of Amenemhet III’s reign: 1530-1484BC (approximately).

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

An ancient historian by the name of Josephus records that the Israelites were given the task of building pyramids.

The 12th dynasty pyramid of Sensuret II (Sesostris II) at Lahun.

The Works of Josephus

Antiquities of the Jews – Book II

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY YEARS.

FROM THE DEATH OF ISAAC TO THE EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT.

 

CHAPTER 9.

CONCERNING THE AFFLICTIONS THAT BEFELL THE HEBREWS IN EGYPT, DURING FOUR HUNDRED YEARS. (16)

1. NOW it happened that the Egyptians grew delicate and lazy, as to pains-taking, and gave themselves up to other pleasures, and in particular to the love of gain. They also became very ill-affected towards the Hebrews, as touched with envy at their prosperity; for when they saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, and were become eminent already in plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by their virtue and natural love of labor, they thought their increase was to their own detriment. And having, in length of time, forgotten the benefits they had received from Joseph, particularly the crown being now come into another family, they became very abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many ways of afflicting them; for they enjoined them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to build walls for their cities and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, upon its running over its own banks: they set them also to build pyramids, (17) and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor. And four hundred years did they spend under these afflictions; for they strove one against the other which should get the mastery, the Egyptians desiring to destroy the Israelites by these labors, and the Israelites desiring to hold out to the end under them.

(16) As to the affliction of Abraham’s posterity for 400 years, see Antiq. B. I. ch. 10. sect. 3; and as to what cities they built in Egypt, under Pharaoh Sesostris. and of Pharaoh Sesostris’s drowning in the Red Sea, see Essay on the Old Testament, Append. p. 132-162.
(17) Of this building of the pyramids of Egypt by the Israelites, see Perizonius Orig. Aegyptiac, ch. 21. It is not impossible they might build one or more of the small ones; but the larger ones seem much later. Only, if they be all built of stone, this does not so well agree with the Israelites’ labors, which are said to have been in brick, and not in stone, as Mr. Sandys observes in his Travels. p. 127, 128.
Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Pharaohs (of the 12th dynasty) oppressed the Israelites and forced them to make mud bricks reinforced with straw.

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<< Exodus 5 >>

New International Version 1984


Bricks Without Straw

1Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘Let my people go, so that they may hold a festival to me in the desert.’”

2Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey him and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord and I will not let Israel go.”

3Then they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Now let us take a three-day journey into the desert to offer sacrifices to the Lord our God, or he may strike us with plagues or with the sword.”

4But the king of Egypt said, “Moses and Aaron, why are you taking the people away from their labor? Get back to your work!” 5Then Pharaoh said, “Look, the people of the land are now numerous, and you are stopping them from working.”

6That same day Pharaoh gave this order to the slave drivers and foremen in charge of the people: 7“You are no longer to supply the people with straw for making bricks; let them go and gather their own straw. 8But require them to make the same number of bricks as before; don’t reduce the quota. They are lazy; that is why they are crying out, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to our God.’ 9Make the work harder for the men so that they keep working and pay no attention to lies.”

10Then the slave drivers and the foremen went out and said to the people, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I will not give you any more straw. 11Go and get your own straw wherever you can find it, but your work will not be reduced at all.’” 12So the people scattered all over Egypt to gather stubble to use for straw. 13The slave drivers kept pressing them, saying, “Complete the work required of you for each day, just as when you had straw.” 14The Israelite foremen appointed by Pharaoh’s slave drivers were beaten and were asked, “Why didn’t you meet your quota of bricks yesterday or today, as before?”

15Then the Israelite foremen went and appealed to Pharaoh: “Why have you treated your servants this way? 16Your servants are given no straw, yet we are told, ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are being beaten, but the fault is with your own people.”

17Pharaoh said, “Lazy, that’s what you are—lazy! That is why you keep saying, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to the Lord.’ 18Now get to work. You will not be given any straw, yet you must produce your full quota of bricks.”

19The Israelite foremen realized they were in trouble when they were told, “You are not to reduce the number of bricks required of you for each day.” 20When they left Pharaoh, they found Moses and Aaron waiting to meet them, 21and they said, “May the Lord look upon you and judge you! You have made us a stench to Pharaoh and his officials and have put a sword in their hand to kill us.”

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Israelites were fruitful and multiplied while Joseph (?Imhotep) lived. After Joseph had died, a new king came to power in Egypt who did not know Joseph or his connection with the Israelites. He felt threatened and started to oppress the Israelites.

<< Exodus 1 >>

New International Version 1984


The Israelites Oppressed

1These are the names of the sons of Israel who went to Egypt with Jacob, each with his family: 2Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; 3Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; 4Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher. 5The descendants of Jacob numbered seventya in all; Joseph was already in Egypt.

6Now Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation died, 7but the Israelites were fruitful and multiplied greatly and became exceedingly numerous, so that the land was filled with them.

8Then a new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt. 9“Look,” he said to his people, “the Israelites have become much too numerous for us. 10Come, we must deal shrewdly with them or they will become even more numerous and, if war breaks out, will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the country.”

11So they put slave masters over them to oppress them with forced labor, and they built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh. 12But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread; so the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites 13and worked them ruthlessly.14They made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their hard labor the Egyptians used them ruthlessly.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The last of the Great Pyramids. The Amenmehat III pyramid at Hawara. The 12th dynasty pyramids had a core of mudbricks and a limestone veneer. The limestone veneer has fallen away / been removed over the centuries exposing the core which is composed of millions of mudbricks.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The pyramids of the 12th dynasty (Middle Kingdom) had an inner core of mud bricks and a limestone veneer

The Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara showing the mudbricks of the inner core, the limestone blocks that were part of the external veneer and the considerable erosion that has occured over the centuries. This was the last of the Great Pyramids of Egypt. The Israelites were slaves in Egypt during the 12th dynasty when this pyramid was made. Moses was brought up by Amenemhet III. It is quite likely that the millions of mudbricks that went into building this pyramid were made by the Israelites. When the exodus occured, there was not enough slave labour to make pyramids anymore and so the pyramid age ended. Erosion of the inner core of mudbricks may have been what caused the limestone veneer to collapse. The pyramids of the Old Kingdom which were made of solid limestone have stood the test of time much better.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Tribe of Manasseh mentioned in Egyptian Records of Sesostris III and Seti the Great

Sesostris III - (The father of Amenemhet III)

http://www.specialtyinterests.net/thutmose.html#manasseh

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Amenemhet III – The Pharaoh who allowed his daughter / sister (Sobeknefru) to adopt Moses.

Amenemhet III - 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty - The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from. When Moses was 40 yrs old he had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/utp/pharaohs-of-the-oppression

http://www.smgolden.com/documents/Searching-for-Moses.pdf
http://biblicalarcheology.net/?p=228
Categories: 12th dynasty, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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