Posts Tagged With: Pyramid

The Pyramid Age coincides with the Sojourn of Israel in Egypt

The pyramids of Egypt remain one of the great wonders of the world.

How the Ancient Egyptians managed to cut the huge solid limestone blocks, transport them and lift them into position before the wheel was even invented remains a mystery.

The first pyramid to be built was the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser (Netjerikhet) which is part of a complex in Saqqara Egypt that appears to be a grain storage and distribution center. The Step Pyramid itself was built on top of a shaft that was originally used as a grain silo but then converted into a tomb for the Pharaoh. The Step Pyramid is really a series of Mastabas, made from solid limestone blocks, stacked up on top of one another. The Step Pyramid was used to bury Netjerikhet’s 3 wives and 11 daughters and Netjerikhet’s sarcophagus was placed on a platform in the shaft beneath the Stepped Pyramid.

The Step Pyramid was designed by Imhotep who may well be the Joseph of the Bible. Joseph and Imhotep have many similarities but have not been thought to be one in the same person because of discrepancies between the estimated dates of their existence.

The Step Pyramid became the standard for the burial of pharaohs in subsequent dynasties.

Joseph would have lived well into the fourth dynasty if he was Imhotep of the 3rd dynasty and would no doubt have served more than one pharaoh.

The great pyramids of Giza far surpass the size of the first pyramid at Saqqara and contain enormous blocks that still leave the experts puzzled as to how they could have been lifted into place with the technology of the day.

The 12th dynasty appears to have arisen out of the 11th dynasty which was contemporary with the 6th dynasty. The Middle Kingdom of Egypt, therefore, directly followed the Old Kingdom. There was no first intermediate period as such.

The pyramids of the 12th dynasty were made from mudbricks that contained straw as a reinforcement. Each pyramid would have contained millions upon millions of these mudbricks which were about 24 inches by 12 inches by 6 inches in size. The 12th dynasty pyramids thus had a core that was made of mud bricks but the outer veneer was made of limestone which was becoming more difficult to quarry by the 12th dynasty and therefore in short supply. Over the centuries, the outer veneer of limestone has fallen down and been pilfered exposing the inner mudbrick core.

Paradoxically, the first pyramids to have been built, those of the 3rd and 4th dynasty (Old Kingdom Pyramids), have stood the test of time better than those built in the 12th dynasty (Middle Kingdom Pyramids). This is because the Old Kingdom Pyramids were made entirely out of solid limestone blocks while the Middle Kingdom Pyramids were made largely from Mud Bricks (the core) and only had a veneer of limestone.

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty would have required a large slave labor force to make the mudbricks for the 12th dynasty pyramids.

The Israelites had come to number around 2 million by the time of the Exodus. The seven pyramids of the 12th dynasty were built over a 200 year period. Flinders Petrie found evidence of a sudden massive exodus of slaves from the town of Kahun in the 13th dynasty. The town of Kahun was a semetic workers village where the builders of the 12th dynasty pyramids lived.

If the Israelite exodus took place in the 13th dynasty then it would seem likely that it was the Israelites who were enslaved during the 12th dynasty and given the task of making mudbricks for the pyramids. After the Exodus in the 13th dynasty, no more pyramids were built.

If the first pyramid was designed by an Israelite, Joseph-Imhotep, and the Israelites were slaves in Egypt up until the last pyramid of the 12th dynasty was built, then the Pyramid age would coincide with the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt! It therefore follows that the pyramid age spanned a 400 year period from around 1900BC to 1500BC.

see Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

Categories: Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The relationship between the Kingdoms of Egypt and the Phases of Israel

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, Timelines, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Could Moses have been born during the 12th dynasty of Egypt?

The Israelites had grown to number around 2 million by the end of the 12th dynasty when Moses was born.

Joseph (Imhotep) had long since died and the Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had forgotten his connection to the Israelites.  Joseph / Imhotep had looked after his family and ensured that they were able to multiply to become a great nation.  Joseph died at the age of 110 years; 80 years after coming to Egypt.

The Israelites were in Egypt for 430 years by the time of the Exodus.

The Israelites had become so numerous by the start of the 12th dynasty that the Egyptians were beginning to feel threatened.

Amenmhet I (the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty), was the vizier of Mentuhotep IV (the last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty) whom he may have assasinated.

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty required a large slave labour force for the construction of their pyramids and other public works.  The Jews were given the task of making mud bricks and working in the fields.  The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 years and at least seven pyramids were constructed during this time.

A semitic slave village at Kahun was built during the time of Sesostris II and occupied up until the time of the Exodus when Neferhotep I was reigning.  We know this because scarabs of these pharaohs were found in the town.

The pyramids of the 12th dynasty had a core of mudbricks and a limestone veneer.  The cores of each of these pyramids contained millions of mudbricks.  Mudbricks were also used for other structures such as the Labyrinth which was built by Amenemhet III, the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty.

Amenemhet III reigned for 46 yrs but had a 20 year co-regency with his father Sesostris III at the beginning of his reign. Moses was born early in the reign of Amenemhet III. It was Amenemhet III who tried to kill the male Israelite babies at birth. It was his daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses in a basket among the reeds of the Nile and adopted him and raised him as her own.  Moses was groomed to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV and may have even been co-regent with Amenemhet III for 9 years (as Amenemhet IV).  He never got to rule by himself.  When his affections for the Israelites became known, Moses (alias Amenemhet IV) had to go into exile in Midian or be killed by Amenemhet III.

This not only fits well with historical records and the archaeological evidence, it allows complete synchrony of the Bible with the Egyptian Chronology.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Amenemhet I was the founder of the 12th dynasty. He was the vizier of his predecessor Mentuhotep IV who he may have assassinated.

The Amenemhet I pyramid at El-Lisht.
Amenmehet I was a vizier of Mentuhotep IV of the previous dynasty. He was not of royal descent. He is thought to have overthrown Mentuhotep IV and founded the 12th dynasty.
The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 yrs and was essentially the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
The pyramids of the 12th dynasty characteristically had a core that was made out of mudbricks and an external veneer that was made from limestone.
A large slave labour force was needed to make the mudbricks.
A workers village was found by Petrie in 1891 at Kahun. He found scarabs from the time of Sensuret II that indicated that it was occupied during the 12th dynasty up until the 13th dynasty. He also found evidence of a sudden exodus from the village in the 13th dynasty. He thought that many of the semitic slaves were Isralites.
Joseph came to Egypt at the age of 30 yrs and was 110 yrs when he died. The Jews lived in Egypt 430 years and then Moses lead them out of Egypt (The Exodus). The Israelites numbered only 70 when they came to Egypt in the ?third dynasty. By the 12th dynasty, they numbered over a million and the pharaoh had long forgotten their connection to Joseph (?Imhotep) who had saved Egypt from famine and may even have built the first pyramid.

Amenemhet I – the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 30 yrs (including a 10 yr coregency with his son Sensuret I) and then was assassinated.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The Last of the Great Pyramids. Like other 12th dynasty pyramids, the mud bricks in it’s core were probably made by Hebrew slaves.

Amenemhet III was the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty of Egypt. He built 2 pyramids; the Black Pyramid at Dashur and this one at Hawara.
While the pyramids of the Old Kingdom were made of solid limestone blocks, the 12th dynasty (Middle Kingdom) pyramids had a core that was made of bricks (containing mud and straw) and an outer veneer of limestone.
Over the centuries, the outer veneer has fallen down as a result of erosion and earth quakes or stolen by people to be used elsewhere. What remains is the mud brick core which has been eroded further by the weather.
If you look carefully, the straw within the mud bricks is still quite easy to see.
It would have taken an enormous number of slaves to make this number of mud bricks, let a lone assemble them.
It is likely that the mud bricks in these 12th dynasty pyramids were made by Hebrew slaves prior to the Exodus.

Amenemhet III would have been the Pharaoh that Moses fled from.

When the Exodus took place in 1445 BC, there were not enough slaves left in Egypt to make mud bricks  and so no more pyramids were built.
The dates do not match with the traditional dates calculated from Manetho because many dynasties and regencies ran in parallel and some dynasties have been counted twice. The Egyptian Chronology needs to be revised and then it will match the Biblical Chronology.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

An ancient historian by the name of Josephus records that the Israelites were given the task of building pyramids.

The 12th dynasty pyramid of Sensuret II (Sesostris II) at Lahun.

The Works of Josephus

Antiquities of the Jews – Book II

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY YEARS.

FROM THE DEATH OF ISAAC TO THE EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT.

 

CHAPTER 9.

CONCERNING THE AFFLICTIONS THAT BEFELL THE HEBREWS IN EGYPT, DURING FOUR HUNDRED YEARS. (16)

1. NOW it happened that the Egyptians grew delicate and lazy, as to pains-taking, and gave themselves up to other pleasures, and in particular to the love of gain. They also became very ill-affected towards the Hebrews, as touched with envy at their prosperity; for when they saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, and were become eminent already in plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by their virtue and natural love of labor, they thought their increase was to their own detriment. And having, in length of time, forgotten the benefits they had received from Joseph, particularly the crown being now come into another family, they became very abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many ways of afflicting them; for they enjoined them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to build walls for their cities and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, upon its running over its own banks: they set them also to build pyramids, (17) and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor. And four hundred years did they spend under these afflictions; for they strove one against the other which should get the mastery, the Egyptians desiring to destroy the Israelites by these labors, and the Israelites desiring to hold out to the end under them.

(16) As to the affliction of Abraham’s posterity for 400 years, see Antiq. B. I. ch. 10. sect. 3; and as to what cities they built in Egypt, under Pharaoh Sesostris. and of Pharaoh Sesostris’s drowning in the Red Sea, see Essay on the Old Testament, Append. p. 132-162.
(17) Of this building of the pyramids of Egypt by the Israelites, see Perizonius Orig. Aegyptiac, ch. 21. It is not impossible they might build one or more of the small ones; but the larger ones seem much later. Only, if they be all built of stone, this does not so well agree with the Israelites’ labors, which are said to have been in brick, and not in stone, as Mr. Sandys observes in his Travels. p. 127, 128.
Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The last of the Great Pyramids. The Amenmehat III pyramid at Hawara. The 12th dynasty pyramids had a core of mudbricks and a limestone veneer. The limestone veneer has fallen away / been removed over the centuries exposing the core which is composed of millions of mudbricks.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression, slavery | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The last of the Great Pyramids of Egypt

The entrance to the Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core made from mudbricks and an outer veneer made of limestone. Over the centuries, the outer limestone veneer has fallen away revealing the inner core which was made of mud bricks. There is also a lot of erosion. The mudbricks are likely to have been made by Israelite slaves who were in Egypt at the time. After the Exodus of the Israelites in the 13th dynasty (Neferhotep), no more large pyramids were constructed. Petrie found a workers village at Kahun in 1890. The artifacts he found in the village (namely the scarabs of Pharaohs) indicate that the village was constructed during the time of Sesostris II and was occupied until the 13th dynasty.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The pyramids of the 12th dynasty (Middle Kingdom) had an inner core of mud bricks and a limestone veneer

The Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara showing the mudbricks of the inner core, the limestone blocks that were part of the external veneer and the considerable erosion that has occured over the centuries. This was the last of the Great Pyramids of Egypt. The Israelites were slaves in Egypt during the 12th dynasty when this pyramid was made. Moses was brought up by Amenemhet III. It is quite likely that the millions of mudbricks that went into building this pyramid were made by the Israelites. When the exodus occured, there was not enough slave labour to make pyramids anymore and so the pyramid age ended. Erosion of the inner core of mudbricks may have been what caused the limestone veneer to collapse. The pyramids of the Old Kingdom which were made of solid limestone have stood the test of time much better.

Categories: 12th dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Amenemhet III – The Pharaoh who allowed his daughter / sister (Sobeknefru) to adopt Moses.

Amenemhet III - 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty - The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from. When Moses was 40 yrs old he had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/utp/pharaohs-of-the-oppression

http://www.smgolden.com/documents/Searching-for-Moses.pdf
http://biblicalarcheology.net/?p=228
Categories: 12th dynasty, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Moses, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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