Posts Tagged With: Neferhotep I

Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses birth. Moses-Amenemhet IV had to flea from him at the age of 40 after killing an Egyptian official.

Amenemhet III - 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty -  The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from.  When Moses was 40 yrs old. He had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

Amenemhet III – 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty – The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from. When Moses was 40 yrs old. He had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

Amenemhet III was the last pharaoh of the 12th dynasty to build a pyramid. He was succeeded by his daughter Sobeknefru even though Amenemhet IV co-reigned with him for a period of 9 years.

There is no Egyptian record of Amenemhet IV’s parentage. He is sometimes considered the husband or brother of Sobeknefru. His mummy and his tomb were never found. It is possible that he may be the Moses of the Bible.

Moses was raised in the household of the Pharaoh as the Princess’s own. The Israelite slaves were being forced to make mud bricks and the pharaoh was trying to control the growth of the Hebrew population by killing newborn male babies. Moses somehow retained his Hebrew identity and one day, this caused him to defend a Hebrew slave who was being beaten by a Egyptian task master. He ordered that the Egyptian task master be killed and in so doing made it plain to all where his loyalties lay. When the pharaoh, Amenemhet III found out, Moses-Amenemhet IV feared for his life. He was forced to flea to Midian where he took refuge and met with God for the next 40 years. During this time, Aaron prepared the Israelites to return to promised land while Moses was being prepared to lead them.

After Moses fled to Midian, the 12th dynasty continued for another 10 years until Sobeknefru died. The thirteenth dynasty saw a rapid turn over of pharoahs. When Moses returned at the age of 80 years, a new pharaoh was in charge. This was Neferhotep I.

There would be almost 40 yrs between the death of Amenemhet III and the death of Neferhotep I accounting for the time Moses-Amenemhet IV spent in Midian.

The Israelite oppression really ended when the 12th dynasty ended marking 400yrs in Egypt. The Israelites, however, did not leave Egypt for another 30 years until Moses returned to lead them out of Egypt through the Red Sea.

Categories: Birth Pharaoh, Pharaoh of the Exodus | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Moses was born during the co-regency of Senusret III and Amenemhet III in the 12th dynasty during the Israelite Oppression. The 12th dynasty was doomed when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile and it was crippled by the Exodus of the Israelites 40 years later.

Moses was an Israelite who was adopted by the Pharaoh’s daughter and raised as her own. Moses spend the first 40 years of his life growing up in Pharaoh’s household. There was no change of pharaoh during this time. As the princess did not have any other children, Moses would have become the next pharaoh if he did not have to flee to Midian after showing his loyalty to the Israelites.

Moses was born 80 years before the Exodus and fled to Midian 40 years before the Exodus.

Moses was born during the Israelite Oppression at a time when the Pharaoh was trying to kill all the Hebrew baby boys.

The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430-80=350 years and had been forced into slavery for about 150 years since the start of the 12th dynasty.

Sesostris III - (The father of Amenemhet III)

Senusret III (Sesostris III) – (The father of Amenemhet III)

Amenemhet III, the 6th pharaoh of the 12 dynasty, the last pharaoh to build a great pyramid, had an ambitious building program. His first pyramid at Dashur had flawed foundations and so he built a second pyramid at Hawara. He also build the Labyrinth; considered, in it’s day, to be one of the great wonders of the world by Heroditis. Both of his pyramids were constructed with a core that contained millions upon millions of mud bricks (as was the case for all the pyramids of the 12th dynasty). The labyrinth was a mortuary building that had over one thousand rooms. It was also built from mud bricks and was equal in grandeur to the pyramids themselves.

The Israelites now numbered around 2 million and the Bible says that their chief occupation was making mud bricks for the Pharaoh.

Petrie found a workers village at Kahun, not far from Hawara, where the 12th dynasty pyramids were centered. From his detailed collection of scarabs found in the village, he was able to determine that the village had been occupied from the time of Sesostris II (Senusret II) up until the time of Neferhotep I. The village appeared to have been evacuated fairly suddenly. Petrie also found numerous boxes containing the skeletons of one, two or three babies at a time. The boxes were found under the floors of the houses in the village and were left almost to commemorate the deaths hundreds of babies in the town.

The thirteenth dynasty was only a short dynasty but there was a quick succession of Pharaohs. Neferhotep I was the longest ruling pharaoh of that dynasty, ruling 11 yrs. His body was never found. As the slave village at Kahun was occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I and Neferhotep I ruled 20 to 30 years after the end of the 12th dynasty, it is likely that Neferhotep I was the Exodus Pharaoh whom Moses confronted when he returned from Exile.

There was a large Exodus of slaves during the reign of Neferhotep I according to Petrie. These slaves lived in Kahun which was a workers village for the builders of the 12th dynasty pyramids.

It is quite likely that these slaves were the Israelite slaves who were lead out of Egypt by Moses when he was 80yrs old, 30 years after the 12th dynasty ended.

The 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty Amenemhet III, the last pharaoh to construct any pyramids, constructed 2 mud brick pyramids and the labyrinth. He reigned for 46 yrs and so he was reigning long enough to have seen Moses adopted by his daughter (Sobeknefru) and reach 40 years of age.

Amenemhet III did have a 9 year co-regency with a figure called Amenemhet IV whose ancestry is not recorded in Egyptian records. Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared and never got to reign over Egypt by himself.

When Moses-Amenemhet IV fled to Midian, the 12th dynasty continued for another 10 years. When Amenemhet III died 2 yrs after Moses fled to Midian, Sobeknefru had to assume the throne as there were no other heirs. She only lived for another 8 yrs and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended. Egypt became unstable and there was a rapid succession of pharaohs in the 13th dynasty until Neferhotep I.

The loss of Moses-Amenemhet IV in itself was a big blow to Amenemhet III as it meant that he had no male successor to the throne. His daughter Sobeknefru had to take over when he died. She did not build a pyramid and there are very few monuments commemorating her. Amenemhet IV’s tomb and mummy have never been found. This is likely to be because Amenemhet IV was Moses who fled to Midian and then returned 40 years later to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep I), and lead the Israelites out of Egypt.

The Exodus of the Israelites was an even bigger blow to Egypt because Egypt lost not only it’s slave labor force, it lost it’s army, it’s pharaoh, it’s transportation system, it’s firstborn children and much of it’s crops and animals. It is little wonder that Egypt was not able to undertake massive projects like the construction of pyramids after the Exodus had taken place. What’s more, Egypt had lost all of it’s defenses and was recovering from the plagues that had besmitten it. Consequently, Egypt was vulnerable to invasion and this is just what happened. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos (also known as the Amu or the Amalekites) shortly after the Exodus. The Hyksos set up a fort at Avaris where they occupied and controlled Lower Egypt for the next 400 years. During this time, the Israelites were in the wilderness for 40 years and then in the Promised Land where they were ruled by a series of Judges.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Pyramids were not made by ‘Aliens’ from another planet. The Israelites, however, were aliens to Egypt and did help make mud bricks for the 12th dynasty pyramids.

Pharaohs of the Israelite Oppression

The period when the Israelites were oppressed in Egypt corresponds to the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty required a large slave labour force for the construction of their pyramids and other public works.

The Pyramids of the 12th dynasty, unlike those of earlier dynasties, were made almost entirely of mud bricks which were finished with a limestone veneer. Over the centuries, the limestone veneer has fallen away due to erosion, earthquakes and pilfering. What remains is the inner cores of the pyramids which contain millions of mud bricks.

The Israelites were given the task of making these mud bricks and working in the fields. The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 years and at least seven pyramids were constructed during this time.

The Hebrew Oppression probably began with Amenemhet I, the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. By the time of Sesostris II, a workers villages had been built to house the slaves working on the pyramids at Hawara and Dashur. These villages were occupied up until the time of the Neferhotep I when the exodus occurred.

The pharaohs of the oppression therefore included: Amenemhet ISesostris ISesostris IIAmenemhet IISesostris IIIAmenemhet IIISobekneferu and the 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I.

Of note was Amenemhet III who was the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 46 yrs but had a 20 year co-regency with his father Sesostris III at the beginning of his reign.Moses was born early in the reign of Amenemhet III. It was Amenemhet III who tried to kill the male Israelite babies at birth. It was his daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses in a basket among the reeds of the Nile and adopted him and raised him as her own. Moses was groomed to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV and may have even been co-regent withAmenemhet III for 9 years (as Amenemhet IV). Moses never got to rule by himself. When his affections for the Israelites became known, Moses (alias Amenemhet IV) had to go into exile in Midian or be killed by Amenemhet III.

Pharaohs during the time of Moses’ Exile

Moses (Amenemhet IV) was in exile in Midian for the last few years of Amenemhet III‘s reign and during the reign of Sobekneferu.Exodus 2:23-25

Moses remained in exile for much of the 13th dynasty from the reign of Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I.

Pharaoh of the Exodus

Neferhotep I was one of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to the Turin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty. Neferhotep Iwas succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[4] (Wahneferhotep).[5] He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. Moses (at the age of 80 years) and Aaron (aged 83 years) would have contronted Neferhotep in 1446BC which is when the Exodus occurred. Neferhotep I‘s mummy has never been found because he drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites who were leaving Egypt (the Exodus). The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Dabawere occupied up until the time of Neferhotep IScarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sesostris II up until Neferhotep I were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahunindicating that it was Neferhotep I who was reigning when the Exodus occurred.[6] These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty.

Pharaohs when Israel was in the Wilderness

Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[4] (Wahneferhotep).[5]

A 14th dynasty started but did not last long.

The Hyksos saw their chance to become established in the region and so they built a fort at Avaris on Egypt’s border.

From Avaris, they gradually began to occupy and take over Lower Egypt (The 15th dynasty) where they demanded tribute from the Nomarchs of the North and the South (The 16th dynasty in ?Lower Egypt and 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt).

Pharaohs during the time of the Judges in the Promised Land

Moses (Amenemhet IV) never got to enter the Promised Land. Moses only saw it from a distance.

The Israelites spent 40 years in the Wilderness before Joshua lead them into the Promised land (Canaan). Israel was then ruled by Judges for the next 360 years. This corresponds to Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period.

The Hyksos (Amalekites) took over and ruled Lower Egypt (15th dynasty) for much of the Second Intermediate Period.

Upper Egypt was governed by the Pharaohs of the 17th dynasty although the Hyksos kings who were based in Avaris in Lower Egypt made them pay homage. The second last Pharaoh of the 17th dynasty Seqenenre was actually arrested and taken to Avaris by Apopi II (Agag) where he died.

This provolked Kahmose, the last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt (also the son of Seqenenre) to lead a rebellion against the Hyksos (Amalekites). Eventually, the Hyksos(Amalekites) were defeated and forced to leave Egypt where they encountered Saul of Israel who virtually wiped them out. Their king Apopi II (Agag) was captured alive and taken to Samuel who put him to death.

Pharaohs during the time of the Kings when Israel was united

Ahmose I, the brother of Kahmose and son of Seqenenre became the first Pharaoh of Egypt’s New Kingdom (18th dynasty) at a time when King Saul of Israel was on the throne.


The Israelites Moses Pharaohs
Oppression Moses raised by Sobeknefru in Pharaoh’s household until 40 years old during the reign of Amenemhet III.  Moses co-reigns with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV during this time Amenemhet ISesostris ISesostris IIAmenemhet IISesostris IIIAmenemhet III. (12th dynasty)
Waiting Moses (Amenemhet IV) flees to Midian where he lives with Jethro for 40 years Amenemhet IIISobekneferu (12th dynasty) Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Exodus Moses becomes the leader of the Jews and Aaron their spokesman Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Wilderness Moses leads the Israelites in the Wilderness for 40 years. During this time, Moses receives the Law on Mt Sinai, sets up the Sanctuary and positions the Israelites to take the Promised Land Sobekhotep IV (13th dynasty)14th dynasty
Canaan Moses dies on Mt Nebo in Moab just before the Israelites invade Canaan (The Promised Land).  Israel is ruled by ‘Judges’ Hyksos (15th dynasty)
Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids, slavery, Timelines | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Neferhotep I, The Pharaoh that refused to let the Israelites go. The “Pharaoh of the Exodus”.

Neferhotep I

One of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to the Turin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty.  There were a number of other Pharaohs in this Dynasty but they only reigned for very short periods.  Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobkhotpe IV rather than his son Wahneferhotep.[1]  He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. His mummy has never been found.  The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until Neferhotep I (Scarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs up to and including Neferhotep I‘s were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahun).[2]  These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty.  Following Neferhotep I‘s death, the Hyksos were able to invade Egypt with very little resistance.

Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty.  ‘The Pharaoh of the Exodus‘.  The Pharaoh that Moses (Amenemhet IV) confronted. The Pharaoh who suffered the ten plagues and lost his son (Wahneferhotep) in the last plague.  The Pharaoh who drowned along with his army when he pursued the Israelites into the Red Sea.


Categories: 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus | Tags: , , , | 8 Comments

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