Neferhotep I, The Pharaoh that refused to let the Israelites go. The “Pharaoh of the Exodus”.

Neferhotep I

One of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to the Turin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty.  There were a number of other Pharaohs in this Dynasty but they only reigned for very short periods.  Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobkhotpe IV rather than his son Wahneferhotep.[1]  He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. His mummy has never been found.  The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until Neferhotep I (Scarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs up to and including Neferhotep I‘s were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahun).[2]  These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty.  Following Neferhotep I‘s death, the Hyksos were able to invade Egypt with very little resistance.

Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty.  ‘The Pharaoh of the Exodus‘.  The Pharaoh that Moses (Amenemhet IV) confronted. The Pharaoh who suffered the ten plagues and lost his son (Wahneferhotep) in the last plague.  The Pharaoh who drowned along with his army when he pursued the Israelites into the Red Sea.


Categories: 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus | Tags: , , , | 8 Comments

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8 thoughts on “Neferhotep I, The Pharaoh that refused to let the Israelites go. The “Pharaoh of the Exodus”.

  1. Douglas Petrovich

    Dear Blogger, your pictures are nice and your zeal is commendable, but your synchronisms between biblical history and Egyptian history are way off base. You should be consulting professional biblical exegetes/historians and archaeologists, rather than winging it yourself. For example, does Neferhotep I remotely qualify as the exodus-pharaoh when scrutinizing his reign against the stringent biographical requirements make clear in the biblical text? Does his reign fit proper biblical chronology, which is quite specific? To test his candidacy, I would suggest consulting my published article on the exodus-pharaoh, the most thorough study on this topic yet performed, which you can find on my webpage.

    Douglas Petrovich, PhD Candidate, ThM, MDiv, MA
    University of Toronto, Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations
    Major: Syro-Palestinian Archaeology
    First Minor: Egyptology
    Second Minor: ANE Religions

    • I would be interested to know what you believe and what basis you have for it.

      • Douglas Petrovich

        I am an interdisciplinarian, and my two fields are biblical studies/exegesis and ANE history/archaeology/language/epigraphy/iconography. I taught a total of 25 different courses (including Greek and Hebrew language/exegesis) over 10 years in a seminary I helped to found in Siberia, Russia, and now I am completing a PhD at the University of Toronto. Major: Syro-Palestinian archaeology. 1st Minor: Egyptology. 2nd Minor: ANE Religions.

        I published a peer-reviewed article on the exodus-pharaoh in 2006, which you can download from my webpage. This is the most comprehensive study on the e-p ever undertaken; any candidate for the e-p must pass ALL of the biographical requirements in the Bible, many of which are outlined in my article.

        Currently I am completing a book on Israel’s Egyptian sojourn and exodus. One chapter provides hard evidence for both the exodus and the first Passover. Another attests to their stay in biblical Raamses/Goshen from the mid 12th Dynasty until the reign of Amenhotep II (the only valid candidate for the e-p). A third demonstrates signs of societal upheaval in Egypt during Joseph’s administration, as well as signs of his handiwork. A forth is an updating of the e-p article. A final chapter solves the question of the exact length of the sojourn and the exact length of the slavery/bondage.

        Any serious treatment of these issues requires expertise in 1) biblical languages, 2) ANE history, 3) archaeology, 4) Egyptology (including texts in Middle and Late Egyptian language). Once published, several theories will be destroyed: 1) late-exodus view; 2) short-sojourn theory; 3) historical revisionism that calls for radical redating of Egyptian history and the Middle Bronze Age in the Levant (including radical theories of Rohl, Bimson, etc.).

    • What an awesome article …. Still studying it …

      Hoffmeier nobly suggests that “the absence of pharaoh’s name may ultimately be for theological reasons,because the Bible is not trying to answer the question, ‘Who is the pharaoh of the exodus?’ to satisfy the curiosity of modern historians; rather, it was seeking to clarify for Israel who was the God of the exodus.”

      Still remember watchng the Ten Commandments with Heston … LOL

      What have you written ?

      Bill Huninghake

      • Douglas Petrovich

        Dear Bill, I’m glad you’re enjoying the article. Yes, I also have enjoyed watching the 10 Commandments film by Cecil. B. DeMille, and I still cry every time I see the climactic moments in it. For the other things I have written, see my page on, where several of my articles/theses are downloadable.

        Currently I am writing a book entitled, Evidence of Israelites in Egypt from Joseph’s Time until the Exodus. In all honesty, this book is going to change the landscape forever on our understanding of the relationship between ancient Israel and Egypt. The evidence I have found through painstaking research is stunning, and 100,000 more tangible and compelling than the “chariot wheels preserved in the sea” bologna that’s put out there by sensationalists.

  2. Douglas Petrovich

    I strongly recommend several steps for you. 1) Hit the reset buttons on your views of biblical history and chronology. 2) Start with square 1, which is getting grounded in proper OT chronology. First, Thiele’s Mysterious Numbers. Second, Rodger Young’s slight correctives to Thiele (his papers can be obtained through Googling; see esp. When Did Solomon Die?). 3) Read my e-p article to help you synchronize Egyptian-Israelite history properly. 4) Read my Hazor article (same webpage) to see how this fits properly with conquest chronology and is confirmed by the archaeology of Hazor (where I was part of the dig). You could also consult Bryant Wood’s articles on Jericho here. 5) Burn all of your books that took you down these wrong paths, brother (Prov. 27:6).

    • Please explain the essence of your theory – namely who was Joseph and Moses in Egyptian history and how does this fit with the Bible? What evidence do you have to support your theory? Please be concise. Do you believe in the flood and creation?

      • Douglas Petrovich

        There is no inscriptional record of Moses in Egypt. The closest thing we may have is Hatshepsut’s sudden and unexpected vacating of her reign as pharaoh right about the very time Moses killed the Egyptian (during the reign of Thutmose III). See my e-p article for the discussion on the high likelihood of Hatshepsut’s being the pharaoh’s daughter who took Moses from the Nile.

        The only possible known inscriptional attestation to Joseph is a scarab with the title “ruler of/from Retjenu” on it. This, of course, lacks a name for the “ruler.” However, there is a plethora of evidence connecting activities under the reigns of Sesostris II, Sesostris III, and Amenemhet III to his administration in Egypt. This will be in the book in great detail.

        Yes, I am completely orthodox and conservative in my theology. I certainly do believe in creation and the Flood; I taught a seminary course entitled, Exegesis of Genesis 1-11. I believe that, for the first time, we can be certain about the date of the Flood, actually. This is due to our ability now to identify the site and exact timing of the tower of Babel (which is NOT at traditional Babylon, by the way). This will be published in the form of 2 successive journal articles, hopefully in JESOT. Only the journal is slowing this down.

        These twin articles will lead to an article I have not yet written, which will pin down firm dates for the ToB and Flood, which includes the solving of the textual variants in Genesis 11. Title: Breakthrough in OT Chronology: Establishing Firm Dates from Abraham to the Tower of Babel, Thanks to Archaeology’s Help in Resolving the Textual Variants in Genesis 11.


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