Daily Archives: December 15, 2014

Moses was the only Israelite in the Bible who was in a position to become a Pharaoh. While he may have been a junior co-regent (Amenemhet IV) he never got to rule alone. This was so he could achieve what God had destined him to do.

Moses is the only Israelite in history who was in a position to become a Pharaoh of Egypt. Not even Joseph could lay claim to this although he came very close, becoming a vizier to Pharaoh Netjerikhet in the 3rd dynasty. Joseph, having saved Egypt from a seven year famine and having brought up all the land of Egypt for the Pharaoh was, however, a very prominent person in Egyptian History to the extent that the Egyptians and the Greeks almost deified him (Imhotep). As time went by, Netjerikhet started to become known as the Pharaoh of Joseph (Djoser). Temples were built in Joseph-Imhotep’s name and pilgrims would bring mummified animals to offer to his tomb in the hope of being healed over a 1000 years after his death.

Moses was an equally prominent figure in Egyptian History, not because he made it to the top job, but because of the impact that his disappearance had on the 12th dynasty and because of the impact that the Exodus had on Egypt. In the first half of their sojourn, the Israelites were well received and well treated by the Egyptians. As they flourished and grew in number, the Egyptians began to feel threatened. At the end of the Old Kingdom there was an uprising in Upper Egypt. Amenemhet I, the vizier of Mentuhotep IV of the 11th dynasty, based in Thebes, assassinated Mentuhotep IV and gradually took over the rest of the country. This was the beginning of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom or the 12th dynasty as it was called by Manetho. The pharaohs of Egypt’s Middle kingdom had a very different attitude towards the Israelites to the extend that the Israelites were enslaved and forced to make mud bricks for the public works of the 12th dynasty pharaohs. Eventually, the 12th dynasty pharaohs became so oppressive that they even practiced genocide by killing the male infants of the Israelites. 65% of the graves in Tel ed Daba where the Israelites lived were for infants and many coffins containing babies were found in Kahun which was also an Israelite village.

The Israelite oppression ended when the 12th dynasty ended (marking 400 years in Egypt) but the Israelites did not leave Egypt until 30 years later when Moses returned to confront Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty.

Moses-Amenemhet IV’s disappearance at the age of 40 was bad news for the 12th dynasty when Egypt’s wealth and power was at a peek because there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty when Amenemhet III died other than his daughter Sobeknefru. Sobeknefru only reigned for 8 years and then she died. Egypt became politically unstable and began to decline. When Moses-Amenemhet IV returned to Egypt to confront the pharaoh (Neferhotep), inflicting the ten plagues and then leading the Israelites (numbering 2 million) out of Egypt, Egypt was crippled due to the loss of it’s firstborn, the loss of it’s army, chariots, crops and animals; not to mention it’s SLAVES. Egypt became easy pickings for foreign invaders. It was not long after the Exodus that the Hyksos (Amalekites) invaded Egypt and built a fort at Avaris (previously called Tel ed Daba) which was where the Israelites had lived. From Avaris, the Hyksos occupied and controlled lower Egypt for the next 400 years until Sequenre and Kahmose in Thebes, Upper Egypt, (17th dynasty) mounted a rebellion to force the Hyksos to leave Egypt where they were to encounter Saul of Israel who all but wiped them out. The 18th dynasty, or Egypts New Kingdom had begun. Many of the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom seem to have been named after Moses perhaps indicating that the Egyptians had considerable respect for Moses.

Given the enormous impact Moses had on Egyptian History and the fact that he was in a position to become a pharaoh at the end of a mud brick making empire in which his family were the major mud brick producers, it is very plausible and in deed, highly likely that Moses did manage to get to the top job, even if only as a junior co-regent. Things may have been different if he was allowed to rule by himself but then Moses-Amenemhet IV may not have achieved what God had intended for him. God had allowed the Israelites to grow into a nation in Egypt and it was Moses’ job to lead the Israelites back to the promised land as God had promised he would to Abraham.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Birth Pharaoh, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Moses, Mud bricks containing straw, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression, Pyramids | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

It was Sobeknefru who found Moses in a basket among the reeds of the Nile. She raised him as her own, grooming him to take over as the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV.

Sobeknefru. Daughter of Amenemhet III,  Foster mother of Moses.  Last Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

Sobeknefru. Daughter of Amenemhet III, Foster mother of Moses. Last Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

Sobeknefru was the daughter of Amenemhet III who reigned over Upper and Lower Egypt for 46 yrs. It was Amenemhet III and his father Senusret III who were co-reigning at the time when Moses was born to the Hebrew slave Jochebed. A decree was given by the pharaoh that the midwives kill all male babies born to the Hebrew slaves. Moses was found hidden among the reeds of the Nile by the Princess (Sobeknefru) when she went down to the Nile to bathe.

Sobeknefru had no children and so there were no male heirs to the throne to continue on from Amenemhet III. Sobeknefru ended up adopting Moses, raising him as her own and grooming him to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV.

Amenemhet IV did in fact co-reign with Amenemhet III for 9 years, however, Amenemhet IV seems to have disappeared from the record because when Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobekneferu had to take the throne. Sobeknefru reigned for 8 yrs and then she died. When she died, the 12th dynasty came to an end.

Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Birth Pharaoh, Egypt, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Mud bricks containing straw | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses birth. Moses-Amenemhet IV had to flea from him at the age of 40 after killing an Egyptian official.

Amenemhet III - 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty -  The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from.  When Moses was 40 yrs old. He had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

Amenemhet III – 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty – The Pharaoh whom Moses fled from. When Moses was 40 yrs old. He had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian official.

Amenemhet III was the last pharaoh of the 12th dynasty to build a pyramid. He was succeeded by his daughter Sobeknefru even though Amenemhet IV co-reigned with him for a period of 9 years.

There is no Egyptian record of Amenemhet IV’s parentage. He is sometimes considered the husband or brother of Sobeknefru. His mummy and his tomb were never found. It is possible that he may be the Moses of the Bible.

Moses was raised in the household of the Pharaoh as the Princess’s own. The Israelite slaves were being forced to make mud bricks and the pharaoh was trying to control the growth of the Hebrew population by killing newborn male babies. Moses somehow retained his Hebrew identity and one day, this caused him to defend a Hebrew slave who was being beaten by a Egyptian task master. He ordered that the Egyptian task master be killed and in so doing made it plain to all where his loyalties lay. When the pharaoh, Amenemhet III found out, Moses-Amenemhet IV feared for his life. He was forced to flea to Midian where he took refuge and met with God for the next 40 years. During this time, Aaron prepared the Israelites to return to promised land while Moses was being prepared to lead them.

After Moses fled to Midian, the 12th dynasty continued for another 10 years until Sobeknefru died. The thirteenth dynasty saw a rapid turn over of pharoahs. When Moses returned at the age of 80 years, a new pharaoh was in charge. This was Neferhotep I.

There would be almost 40 yrs between the death of Amenemhet III and the death of Neferhotep I accounting for the time Moses-Amenemhet IV spent in Midian.

The Israelite oppression really ended when the 12th dynasty ended marking 400yrs in Egypt. The Israelites, however, did not leave Egypt for another 30 years until Moses returned to lead them out of Egypt through the Red Sea.

Categories: Birth Pharaoh, Pharaoh of the Exodus | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Moses was born during the co-regency of Senusret III and Amenemhet III in the 12th dynasty during the Israelite Oppression. The 12th dynasty was doomed when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile and it was crippled by the Exodus of the Israelites 40 years later.

Moses was an Israelite who was adopted by the Pharaoh’s daughter and raised as her own. Moses spend the first 40 years of his life growing up in Pharaoh’s household. There was no change of pharaoh during this time. As the princess did not have any other children, Moses would have become the next pharaoh if he did not have to flee to Midian after showing his loyalty to the Israelites.

Moses was born 80 years before the Exodus and fled to Midian 40 years before the Exodus.

Moses was born during the Israelite Oppression at a time when the Pharaoh was trying to kill all the Hebrew baby boys.

The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430-80=350 years and had been forced into slavery for about 150 years since the start of the 12th dynasty.

Sesostris III - (The father of Amenemhet III)

Senusret III (Sesostris III) – (The father of Amenemhet III)

Amenemhet III, the 6th pharaoh of the 12 dynasty, the last pharaoh to build a great pyramid, had an ambitious building program. His first pyramid at Dashur had flawed foundations and so he built a second pyramid at Hawara. He also build the Labyrinth; considered, in it’s day, to be one of the great wonders of the world by Heroditis. Both of his pyramids were constructed with a core that contained millions upon millions of mud bricks (as was the case for all the pyramids of the 12th dynasty). The labyrinth was a mortuary building that had over one thousand rooms. It was also built from mud bricks and was equal in grandeur to the pyramids themselves.

The Israelites now numbered around 2 million and the Bible says that their chief occupation was making mud bricks for the Pharaoh.

Petrie found a workers village at Kahun, not far from Hawara, where the 12th dynasty pyramids were centered. From his detailed collection of scarabs found in the village, he was able to determine that the village had been occupied from the time of Sesostris II (Senusret II) up until the time of Neferhotep I. The village appeared to have been evacuated fairly suddenly. Petrie also found numerous boxes containing the skeletons of one, two or three babies at a time. The boxes were found under the floors of the houses in the village and were left almost to commemorate the deaths hundreds of babies in the town.

The thirteenth dynasty was only a short dynasty but there was a quick succession of Pharaohs. Neferhotep I was the longest ruling pharaoh of that dynasty, ruling 11 yrs. His body was never found. As the slave village at Kahun was occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I and Neferhotep I ruled 20 to 30 years after the end of the 12th dynasty, it is likely that Neferhotep I was the Exodus Pharaoh whom Moses confronted when he returned from Exile.

There was a large Exodus of slaves during the reign of Neferhotep I according to Petrie. These slaves lived in Kahun which was a workers village for the builders of the 12th dynasty pyramids.

It is quite likely that these slaves were the Israelite slaves who were lead out of Egypt by Moses when he was 80yrs old, 30 years after the 12th dynasty ended.

The 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty Amenemhet III, the last pharaoh to construct any pyramids, constructed 2 mud brick pyramids and the labyrinth. He reigned for 46 yrs and so he was reigning long enough to have seen Moses adopted by his daughter (Sobeknefru) and reach 40 years of age.

Amenemhet III did have a 9 year co-regency with a figure called Amenemhet IV whose ancestry is not recorded in Egyptian records. Amenemhet IV suddenly disappeared and never got to reign over Egypt by himself.

When Moses-Amenemhet IV fled to Midian, the 12th dynasty continued for another 10 years. When Amenemhet III died 2 yrs after Moses fled to Midian, Sobeknefru had to assume the throne as there were no other heirs. She only lived for another 8 yrs and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended. Egypt became unstable and there was a rapid succession of pharaohs in the 13th dynasty until Neferhotep I.

The loss of Moses-Amenemhet IV in itself was a big blow to Amenemhet III as it meant that he had no male successor to the throne. His daughter Sobeknefru had to take over when he died. She did not build a pyramid and there are very few monuments commemorating her. Amenemhet IV’s tomb and mummy have never been found. This is likely to be because Amenemhet IV was Moses who fled to Midian and then returned 40 years later to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep I), and lead the Israelites out of Egypt.

The Exodus of the Israelites was an even bigger blow to Egypt because Egypt lost not only it’s slave labor force, it lost it’s army, it’s pharaoh, it’s transportation system, it’s firstborn children and much of it’s crops and animals. It is little wonder that Egypt was not able to undertake massive projects like the construction of pyramids after the Exodus had taken place. What’s more, Egypt had lost all of it’s defenses and was recovering from the plagues that had besmitten it. Consequently, Egypt was vulnerable to invasion and this is just what happened. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos (also known as the Amu or the Amalekites) shortly after the Exodus. The Hyksos set up a fort at Avaris where they occupied and controlled Lower Egypt for the next 400 years. During this time, the Israelites were in the wilderness for 40 years and then in the Promised Land where they were ruled by a series of Judges.

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Categories: 12th dynasty, 13th Dynasty, Egypt, Israel, Israelite Slaves in Egypt, Kahun - Worker Village of the Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh of the Exodus, Pharaohs of the Oppression | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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