The Amenemhet I pyramid at El-Lisht. Amenmehet I was a vizier of Mentuhotep IV of the previous dynasty. He is thought to have overthrown Mentuhotep IV and founded the 12th dynasty. This was the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty contructed pyramids out of mudbricks which were faced with a limestone veneer. They needed to have had a large slave labour force in order to make the mudbricks. A workers village was found by Petrie in 1891 at Kahun. He found scarabs in the town that indicated that it was occupied during the 12th dynasty up until the 13th dynasty. He also found evidence of a sudden exodus from the village in the 13th dynasty. He thought that many of the semitic slaves were Isralites.
The Israelites numbered only 70 when they came to Egypt in the third dynasty. By the 12th dynasty, they numbered over a million and the pharaoh had long forgotten their connection to Joseph who had saved Egypt from famine and may have built the first pyramid (If Joseph and Imhotep were one and the same person). The Jews lived in Egypt 430 years. Joseph was 110 yrs when he died and came to Egypt at the age of 30 yrs.

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